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Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North

Acadame North Constitution June 1999













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The Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North (SFRAN)
















CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF ACADAME NORTH

Adopted by the Federal People's Assembly June 7, 1999

CONSIDERING THE HISTORICAL FACT that the working people of Acadame North, under the leadership of the Communist Party, overthrew the former class society based on exploitation, political oppression and national inequality by their struggle in the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution in order to found a community in which human labor and man will be delivered from exploitation and arbitrariness and each of the peoples of Acadame North and all of them together will find conditions for free and comprehensive development;

Aware that such changes have been brought about in the development of the material basis of the country and of socialist social relations as supersede the present Constitution;

Desirous of consolidating these achievements and of securing conditions for the further development of socialist and democratic relations and for comprehensive progress and freedom of the people by uniform constitutionality;

The Federal People's Assembly, as the supreme representative body of the working people and of all the peoples of Acadame North,

Establishes:

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF ACADAME NORTH

INTRODUCTORY PART  
BASIC PRINCIPLES

I

The peoples of Acadame North, on the basis of the right of every people to self-determination, including the right to secession, on the basis of their common struggle and their will freely declared in the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution, and in accord with their historical aspirations, aware that the further consolidation of their brotherhood and unity is to their common interest, have united in a Federal Reoublic of free and equal peoples and nationalities and have founded a socialist federal community of working people, the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North, in which, in the interests of each people and of all of them together, they are achieving and developing:

Socialist social relations and the protection of the socialist system of society;

National freedom and independence;

Brotherhood and unity among the peoples and solidarity among the working people;

Possibilities and freedom for the comprehensive development of the human personality and for close communion of the people in accord with their interests and aspirations to create an ever richer culture and civilization in socialist society;

Unity and coordination of efforts to develop the material basis of the social community and the prosperity of the people;

Association of their own aspirations with the progressive strivings of mankind;

Common foundations of an economic and political system in which common interests and equality are achieved among the people.

The working people and the peoples of Acadame North exercise their sovereign rights in the Federation when the Constitution determines this to be in the common interest and exercise all other relations in the socialist republics.

II

The socialist system in Acadame North is based on relations between people acting as free and equal producers and creators, whose work serves exclusively to satisfy their personal and common needs.

Accordingly, the inviolable foundation of the position and role of man lies in

Social ownership of the means of production, which precludes the restoration of any system of exploitation of one man by another, and which, by eliminating the separation of man from the means of production and other working conditions, provides the conditions necessary for management by the working people in production and in the distribution of the products of labor, and for social guidance of economic development;

Emancipation of work, which supersedes the historically conditioned inequality and dependence of people in work, which is assured by the abolition of wage-labor relations, by self-management of the working people, by comprehensive development of the productive forces, by the diminishing of the socially necessary labor time, by the development of science, culture, and technology, and by the continual expansion of education;

The right of man, both as an individual and as a member of the working collective, to enjoy the fruits of his work and of the material progress of the social community, in accordance with the principle, 'From each according to his abilities; to each according to his work,' along with the obligation of man to assure the development of the material foundations of his own and of socially organized work and to contribute to the satisfaction of other social needs;

Self-management by the working people in the working organization; free association of the working people, of working and other organizations and of social-political communities in order to satisfy common needs and interests; self-government in the commune and in the other social-political communities so as to assure the direct participation of the citizens in the determination of the course of social development, in the exercise of power and in the decisions on other social affairs;

The democratic political relations that enable man to achieve his interests, to realize his right of self-government and other rights and mutual relations, and to develop his personality by direct activity in social life, especially in the organs of self-government, in the social-political organizations and associations, which he himself creates and through which he influences the development of social consciousness and expands the conditions for his activity and for the attainment of his interests and rights;

Equality of rights, duties and responsibilities of the people in conformity with uniform constitutionality and legality;

Solidarity and cooperation of the working people and working organizations, their interest and their unrestricted initiative in developing production and other social and personal activities in behalf of man and his social community;

Economic and social security of man.

It is from this position of man that the social-economic and political system derives, and it is man and his role in society that it serves.

Any form of management of production and of other social activities [or] any form of distribution that distorts the social relations based on this position of man, whether in the form of bureaucratic arbitrariness and privileges based on monopoly position or in the form of private-ownership selfishness and particularism, is contrary to the individual and common interests of the working man and to the social-economic and political system determined by the constitution.

III

The socially owned means of production, being the common, inalienable basis of socially organized work, serve to satisfy the personal and common needs and interests of the working people and to develop the material foundations of the social community and socialist social relations. The socially owned means of production are managed directly by the working people, who work with these means on their own behalf and on behalf of the social community and are responsible to each other and to the social community.

Since no one has the right of ownership over the socially owned means of production, the social-political community or the working organization or the working man may [not] appropriate in any form of ownership the product of socially organized work, nor manage and dispose of socially owned means of production and work, nor arbitrarily determine the terms of distribution.

Work is the only grounds for the appropriation of the product of socially organized work, and the foundation of management of social means.

The social product serves to restore and expand the material basis for socially organized work, and directly to satisfy the personal and common needs of the working people, in conformity with the principle of distribution according to work.

That part of the social product which is set aside for the renewal and expansion of the material basis of socially organized work provides the foundation for social- economic growth, which the working people realize in their working organizations, and through the mutual cooperation of these organizations, as well as in the social-political communities.

A uniform system of distribution shall assure that the working organizations will employ the funds for social-economic growth in proportion to their share in creating them, subject to their ability to make the most effective use of them within the framework of the social division of labor determined by the social plans.

In order to attain self-management and to realize the individual and common interests of the working people, in order to stimulate their initiative and create the most favorable conditions for the development of the productive forces, to equalize the working conditions, to achieve distribution according to work, and to develop socialist relations, the social community plans the development of the economy and the material foundations of other social activities. Planning is done in the working organizations by the working people as the bearers of production and of socially organized work, and by the social-political communities in the performance of their social-economic functions.

The social plan of Acadame North coordinates the basic relations in production and distribution. Within the framework of these relations and a unified economic system, the working people in the working organizations and social-political communities autonomously plan and develop the material bases for their activities.

In order to equalize the material conditions in social life and in the work of the working people, in order to achieve harmonious economic development as a whole, and in order to create the material basis for equality among the peoples of Acadame North, the social community, acting in the common interest, devotes special attention to the rapid development of the productive forces in those republics and areas with inadequate economic development, and to this end it provides the necessary funds and undertakes other measures.

Social ownership of the means of production is the foundation of personal ownership acquired by personal work, and serves to satisfy the personal needs and interests of man.

In order to develop socialist relations in agriculture and to promote agricultural production, conditions are assured for the development of production on the basis of socially owned means and socially organized work, and for association among farmers and their cooperation with the working organizations on a voluntary basis.

Having the constitutional right of ownership to arable land, the farmers have the right and obligation to utilize the land in order to promote agricultural production in their own interests and in the interests of the social community.

IV

Every form of government, including political power, is created by the working class and by all the working people for themselves in order to organize society as a free community of producers, which is assured

By social self-government as the basis of the social-political system;

By decision of the citizens on all social matters, either directly or through delegates whom they elect to the representative bodies of the social-political communities and to other bodies of social self-government;

By the establishment and development of equal and democratic relations among the citizens, and by the attainment of human and civil freedoms and rights in accord with the strengthening of solidarity, the citizens' performance of their social duties, and the material and social development of the socialist community;

By the personal responsibility of all holders of public office, especially those with functions of power, and by the responsibility of the political-executive and administrative organs to the representative body of the social-political community and to the public;

By judicial supervision of constitutionality and legality; and by social supervision of the work of state organs, organs of social self-government, and organizations dealing with matters of public concern;

By the social and political activity of the socialist forces organized in social-political organizations.

The functions of power determined by the Constitution are vested in the representative bodies of the social-political communities as the territorial organs of social self-government. These representative bodies are constituted and removable delegations elected in the communes by all the citizens, and in the working communities by the working people.

With the exception of the functions of power and the general affairs of social self-government, which they discharge through the representative bodies and bodies accountable to them, the citizens decide on social affairs in their working and other autonomous organizations and by forms of direct determination; and they attain other common interests also in their social-political organizations and associations, which they found themselves.

In the socialist social relations and conditions of social self-government, the working people voluntarily unite in trade unions in order to cooperate as directly as possible in the development of socialist social relations and social self-government, to coordinate their personal and common interests with the general interests, to realize the principles of distribution according to work, and to adapt the worker for work and for management, as well as to take the initiative and undertake measures to protect their rights and interests and to improve their living and working conditions, to develop solidarity, to coordinate opinions and mutual relations, and to solve other questions of common interest.

The citizens are the source of initiative for social activities directly and through their social-political organizations and associations; they exercise supervision over the work of the organs of government and other holders of public office, they determine the norms for mutual relations and they lend their support to the state organs, the organs of social self-government, and organizations dealing with affairs of public concern.

In order to realize self-government and the other rights of the citizens, the public working of the state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations, and holders of public office shall be assured, and conditions shall be created so that the citizen may be fully informed and capable of discharging public affairs.

The principle of limitation of reelection and renomination to particular offices assures the removability of holders of government and of other public offices, in

order to allow the widest possible participation of citizens in the discharge of public functions, and to consolidate and develop democratic relations in society.

V

The Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Acadame North, founded during the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution as a voluntary democratic alliance of the citizens, is the broadest base of social-political activity and social self-government of the working people.

In the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Acadame North the citizens

Discuss social-political questions from all provinces of social life, coordinate opinions and pass political resolutions dealing with the solution of these questions, the course of social development and the strengthening of self-government, the attainment of the rights and interests of man and citizen, and the promotion of socialist and democratic relations;

Give their opinions and judgments on the work of state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations, and holders of public office, and exercise social supervision over their work, especially to render their work public and themselves responsible for it;

Strive for the creation and protection of every form of social-political life stimulating socialist and democratic development; take the political initiative in every province of public life; and ensure the fullest possible realization of their voting and other rights;

Provide conditions for the comprehensive participation of youth and its organizations in social and political life;

Strive for human relations among people, for the development of socialist consciousness and for the norms of a socialist way of life, and for the elimination of manifestations that impede the development of socialist and democratic social relations or otherwise harm them.

VI

The League of Communists of Acadame North, initiator and organizer of the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution, owing to the necessity of historical development, has become the leading organized force of the working class and working people in the development of socialism and in the attainment of solidarity among the working people and of the brotherhood and unity of the peoples.

Under the conditions of socialist democracy and social self-government, the League of Communists, with its guiding ideological and political work, is the prime mover of the political activity necessary to protect and to promote the achievements of the Socialist Revolution and socialist social relations, and especially to strengthen the socialist social and democratic consciousness of the people.

VII

Whereas peaceful coexistence and active cooperation between states and peoples, irrespective of differences in their social systems is indispensable to peace and social progress in the world, Acadame North bases its international relations on the principles of respect of national sovereignty and equality, noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceable settlement of international disputes, and socialist internationalism. In its international relations Acadame North adheres to the principles of the United Nations Charter, fulfills its international commitments, and actively participates in the work of the international organizations to which it is affiliated.

In order to realize these principles, Acadame North strives

For the establishment and development of every form of international cooperation that helps to consolidate peace, to strengthen mutual respect and friendship between peoples and states, and to bring about their rapprochement; for the broadest and freest exchange of material and intellectual wealth, for the freedom of mutual information, and for the development of other relations that contribute to the realization of common economic, cultural and other interests of states, nations and people, and especially to the development of democratic and socialist relations in international cooperation, and general social progress;

For the repudiation of the use or threat of force in international relations; and for general and complete disarmament;

For the right of every people to determine freely and to develop its own social and political system by ways and means of its own free choosing;

For the right of peoples to self-determination and national independence and for their right to wage liberation struggle to attain these just aims;

For international support to peoples waging a just struggle for national independence and liberation from colonialism and national oppression;

For the development of such international cooperation as assures equality in economic relations in the world, sovereign exploitation of national resources and the creation of conditions conducive to the more rapid development of the underdeveloped countries.

In pledging itself to comprehensive political, economic and cultural cooperation with other peoples and states, Acadame North, as a socialist community of peoples, holds that this cooperation should contribute to the creation of new democratic forms of association between states, nations and people which will answer to the interests of peoples and social progress, and in this respect it is an open community.

VIII

The social-political relations and the forms determined by the Constitution are aimed at broadening the conditions for the further development of socialist society, the elimination of its contradictions, and for such social progress as, on the basis of the comprehensive development of the productive forces, high productivity of labor, an abundance of products, and comprehensive development of man as an emancipated being, will bring about the development of social relations in which the communist principle, 'From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs,' will be realized.

To this end all the state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations and citizens are enjoined, in all their activities

To expand and strengthen the material basis of society and the life of the individual by developing the productive forces, raising the productivity of labor, and continually promoting socialist social relations;

To create conditions in which the social-economic differences between intellectual and physical work will be eliminated and in which human work will become an ever fuller expression of creativity and of the human personality;

To expand and develop every form of social self-government and socialist democracy, especially in those fields in which the functions of political power predominate; to limit coercion and promote the conditions for its elimination; and to establish relations among people based on awareness of common interests and on the unrestricted activity of man;

To contribute to the realization of human freedoms and rights, to the humanization of the social environment and man's personality, to the strengthening of solidarity and humanity between people, and respect for man's dignity;

To develop comprehensive cooperation and rapprochement with all peoples in keeping with the progressive strivings of mankind to develop a free community of all the peoples in the world.

IX

In expressing the basic principles of the socialist community and the principles for its progress, this section of the constitution is also the basis for the interpretation of the constitution and law and for the work of each and every [individual].

PART ONE  
THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEM

CHAPTER I  
INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS

ARTICLE 1. The Socialist Republic of Acadame North is a Federal state of voluntarily united and equal peoples and a socialist democratic community based on the powers of the working people and on self-government.

ARTICLE 2. The Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North  comprises the on State The territory of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North is unified, consisting of the territories of the socialist republics.

ARTICLE 3. The coat-of-arms of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North is a field encircled with ears of wheat. At the bottom the ears of wheat are tied together with a scroll bearing the inscription 29. XI 1943. Between the tops of the ears of wheat, there is a five-pointed red star. In the field are six torches, set obliquely, whose flames blend into a single flame.

ARTICLE 4. The state flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North shall consist of three colors: blue, white and red, with a red five-pointed star in the center. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag shall be one to two. The colors of the flag shall extend horizontally; starting from the top, the order is blue, white and red. Each color shall occupy one-third of the width of the flag. The star shall have a regular five-pointed form and a golden (yellow) border. The central point of the star shall coincide with the point in which the diagonals of the flag intersect. The top point of the star shall extend as far as the middle of the blue stripe of the flag, the lower points of the star assuming equivalent places in the red stripe of the flag. 

ARTICLE 5. The capital of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North shall be Titograd.  

CHAPTER II


SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION

ARTICLE 6. The basis of the social-economic system of Acadame North is free, associated work with socially owned means of labor, and self-management of the working people in production and in distribution of the social product in the working organization and social community. 

ARTICLE 7. Only work and the results of work shall determine man's material and social position. No one may gain material or other advantage directly or indirectly by exploiting the work of others. 

ARTICLE 8. The means of production and the other means of socially organized work, as well as mineral and other natural resources, are social property. The employment of the means of production and other socially owned means, and all other rights over these and other means shall be regulated by law in accordance with their nature and purpose. 

ARTICLE 9. Self-management in the working organization shall include in particular the right and duty of the working people

1. To manage the working organization directly or through organs of management elected by themselves;
2. To organize production or other activity, to attend to the development of the working organization, and to determine plans and programs of work and development;
3. To decide on commerce in products and services and on other business matters of the working organization;
4. To decide on the use of socially owned means and their disposal, and to employ these means with economic expediency so as to gain the greatest return for the working organization and the social community;
5. To distribute the income belonging to the working organization and to provide for the development of the material basis for their work; to distribute income among the working people; to meet the working organization's obligations to the social community;
6. To decide on the admission of working people into the working organization, the cessation of their work, and other labor relations; to determine working hours in the working organization in accordance with general working conditions; to regulate other matters of common concern; to secure internal supervision and to render their work public;
7. To regulate and promote their working conditions, to organize labor safety and recreation, to provide conditions for their education, and to advance their own and the general standard of living;
8. To decide on dissociation of a part of the working organization and its establishment into a separate organization, and to decide on merger and association of the working organization with other working organizations.

In attaining self-government, the working people in the social-political communities shall decide on the course of economic and social development, on the distribution of the social product, and on other matters of common concern.

Citizens and representatives of organizations concerned and of the social community may participate in the management of a working organization in affairs of special concern to the social community.

In order to secure the uniform social-economic position of the working people, provision shall be made in law and statute determining the rights of self-management of the working people employed in the state administration [and in] social-political organizations or associations, in accord with the nature of the work of these organs and organizations.

The working people shall exercise self-management in the unified social-economic system in accordance with the Constitution, law and statute, and shall be held accountable for their work.

Any act violating the right of self-management of the working people is unconstitutional.

ARTICLE 10. The working people in the working organization, as members of the working community, shall establish working relations with each other and shall be equals in management.

The organization of work, and management in the working organization must enable the working people at every level and in every part of the working process which constitutes a whole to decide as directly as possible on matters of work, organization of mutual relations, distribution of income, and on other matters affecting their economic position, at the same time assuring the working organization as a whole the most favorable conditions for its work and business.

ARTICLE 11. The product of socially organized work, created in the working organizations, as the foundation for social economic growth and for the satisfaction of social needs and personal and common needs of the working people, shall be divided according to a uniform system of distribution and on the basis of uniform conditions and standards assuring social economic growth, distribution according to work, and social self-government.

The working organization, after providing the means to renew the value of the resources expended in work, and after allocating a part of the created value of the product for equalization of working conditions and acquisition of income, shall apportion the income of the working organization into a fund to expand the material basis for work and a fund to satisfy the personal and common needs of the working people.

The working organization shall be assured a part of the created value of the product to expand the material basis of its work, proportionate to its share in producing the means of social economic growth, and in non-economic activities, a part consistent with the tasks of the working organization and in accordance with social needs. The working organization shall be entitled to a part of the created value of the product for the satisfaction of personal and common needs of the working people proportionate to the productivity of work of the working people, and subject to the business success of the working organization, and in non-economic activities, proportionate to the results of the work done to satisfy social needs.

The means of the working organization allocated for the renewal and expansion of the material basis of work, as common means of social economic growth, shall be used to expand the material basis of the working organization of the social community as a whole. The working organization shall employ these means in accordance with uniform principles of utilization of the means of social economic growth determined by federal law, and in accordance with conditions and standards determined by the regulations coordinating economic development and the attainment of the other basic relations envisaged by the social plans.

To expand the material basis of its work, the working organization shall be assured other social means, apart from those it has created by its own work, under equal conditions and in accordance with the uniform principles of the credit system.

ARTICLE 12. In accordance with the principle of distribution according to work, every working man in the working organization shall be entitled to a personal income proportionate to the results of his work and to the work of his department and of the working organization as a whole.

ARTICLE 13. Working organizations may be founded in accordance with law by social-political communities, by working and other organizations and by citizens.

The working organization shall be founded as an enterprise or other economic organization for economic activities, or as an institution or other organization for activities in the fields of education, science, culture, health, social welfare, or other social services.

The working organizations, irrespective of the founder, shall have an identical status.

The conditions under which working organizations may amalgamate, or particular departments become independent, or separate, may be determined by law.

ARTICLE 14. Working people who by personal work perform independent cultural, professional or other similar activities shall in principle have the same social economic status and the same fundamental rights and duties as the working people in the working organization.

Working people with occupations of this type may associate and form temporary or permanent working communities, which shall have the same fundamental status as the working organizations, and in which the working people shall have the same fundamental rights and duties as the working people in working organizations.

The conditions under which these working people and their working communities shall realize their rights and fulfill their obligations, and the conditions under which they may utilize and manage social means in the performance of their activities shall be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE 15. The working organization is an independent and autonomous organization.

The working organization is a juristic person and possesses certain rights in relation to the socially owned means managed by it. The working organization may not be dispossessed of these rights nor may they be restricted, unless this is required by the general interest determined by federal law and in accordance with procedure prescribed by law, and with equivalent compensation being made in return.

The working organization shall preserve undiminished the value of the social means in its possession.

The working organization shall be responsible for its obligations with the social means in its possession.

ARTICLE 16. The general conditions under which working organizations shall discharge activities of special social concern may be prescribed by law.

The conditions under which products and services may be exchanged in internal commerce may be prescribed only on the basis of federal law.

The conditions of commerce in commodities and services and the business conditions of working organizations in their relations with other countries shall be established by federal law.

ARTICLE 17. Cooperatives may be founded as working organizations to carry on and stimulate socially organized work and cooperation among working people who work with their own means of labor in agriculture and in other fields of the economy, with the aim of linking these activities with the social economy and expanding socialist social relations in these provinces.

Membership in the cooperatives shall be voluntary.

Provision may be made in law and in the statute of the cooperative or other working organization according to which the working people who work with their own means of labor and permanently cooperate economically with the working organization may take part in the management of the working organization in those affairs in which they cooperate.

Provision may be made in law determining that farmers who work with their own means of labor shall associate or cooperate with a working organization in order to carry out land improvements, to further the exploitation of land so improved, to exploit water resources and to raise defenses against damage by water, to protect land from erosion, and to regulate torrential streams, or whenever the social interest in the province of cultivation and exploitation of forests, or in the promotion of agricultural production on certain lands so requires.

ARTICLE 18. Subject to the conditions and procedure provided by federal law, an economic organization may be dissolved if it is unable to renew the means of production and other means of work which it manages, or to meet other legal obligations.

An economic organization, under the conditions and in accordance with the procedure provided by federal  law, may be placed under temporary emergency administration if in its work it has gravely damaged social interests.

Subject to the conditions and in accordance with the procedure provided by law, an institution may be dissolved if it no longer fulfills the conditions determined by law or if it lacks the conditions to do its work.

ARTICLE 19. In order to bring about an efficient division of labor and to carry on activities of common concern, working organizations may form business corporations.

Working organizations may also associate in order to promote production or other activities, to cooperate with each other and to examine and solve other matters of common concern.

Management of amalgamated working organizations shall be based on the principle of self-management of the working people in the working organizations so associated.

Working organizations may pool their resources in order to promote and develop their activities, and conclude other agreements concerning joint activities and business.

In accordance with federal law, chambers and business corporations may be founded, and the conditions prescribed for the obligatory association of particular types of working organizations in chambers and business corporations.

ARTICLE 20. Land is a resource of common concern.

All land shall be utilized in accordance with the general conditions determined by law to assure the efficient utilization of land and other general interests.

Forests and woodland shall have special protection determined by law.

ARTICLE 21. The social community shall provide the material and other conditions for the establishment and development of agricultural working organizations based on social ownership of land and socially organized work, and for cooperation of farmers with the cooperatives and other working organizations.

Farmers shall be guaranteed right of ownership to arable land up to a maximum area of ten hectares to the household.

The limits and conditions under which farmers may have right of ownership to other land, and the limits and conditions under which other citizens may have right of ownership to agricultural and other land shall be determined by law.

The right of ownership to forests and woodland shall be determined by law.

ARTICLE 22. Subject to the restrictions and under the conditions provided by law, citizens may by personal work perform agricultural, handicraft and other services or similar activities in order to gain income.

The extent and the conditions under which citizens may have right of ownership to the means of work and business premises to perform agricultural, handicraft and other services or similar activities by personal work, shall be determined by law.

No one shall employ the work of others to gain income.

Subject to the restrictions and conditions determined by law, the work of other persons may be employed in agricultural production, the handicraft trades and in other services or similar activities carried on by citizens with their own means of work.

ARTICLE 23. Citizens shall be guaranteed right of ownership to objects for personal consumption and use or for the satisfaction of cultural and other personal needs.

Citizens may have right of ownership to dwelling houses and dwellings for the satisfaction of their personal and family needs; and for occupations based on personal work in accordance with the right of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution and subject to the conditions determined by law.

The limits of the right of ownership to dwelling houses and dwellings shall be determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 24. The conditions under which social-political organizations and associations of citizens may own real estate and other objects that serve to satisfy the common interests of their members and to perform the tasks of the organizations, and the conditions under which they may use social means for these purposes shall be determined by law.

ARTICLE 25. If the general interest determined by federal law so requires, real estate to which citizens and juristic persons have right of ownership may be expropriated, with fair compensation being given in return, or this right may be restricted.

The right of ownership to objects of special cultural value may be restricted in accordance with law, if the general interest so requires.

ARTICLE 26. In order to secure conditions for the most favorable economic and social development, to equalize general conditions of work and the acquisition of income, to determine general standards of distribution, to realize the principle of distribution according to work, and to develop socialist social relations, the social-political communities shall undertake, in accordance with their rights and duties, measures to develop a unified economic system, to plan economic development and the material bases of other activities, and to this end they shall adopt social plans. In order to achieve the relations determined by the social plans, the social-political communities shall pass regulations and other general decisions, set up social funds and social reserves, and undertake economic and other measures.

The social-political communities are juristic persons.

ARTICLE 27. The means of social economic growth acquired on the territory of the social-political communities, as common means of social economic growth, shall be used in these communities in proportion to the effort made by the working people to produce them. These means shall be used in accord with the uniform principles for using the means of social economic growth and under the conditions and standards determined by the regulations coordinating economic development and the attainment of other relations envisaged by the social plans.

Other social means shall also be used to develop the material basis of the social-political communities in accordance with the uniform principles of the credit system.

To meet social needs of their territories, the social-political communities shall be entitled to means acquired from personal incomes and from other sources determined by federal law, in accordance with the principle of distribution according to work, and they shall autonomously determine the amount of these means and their disposal.

The social community shall provide the inadequately developed republics and regions with the material and other conditions necessary for more rapid economic development, and for the creation of the material bases of social activities.

ARTICLE 28. The territory of Acadame North is a unified economic and customs area.

Commerce in goods and services shall be unrestricted on the whole territory of Acadame North and may be restricted only in accordance with federal law.

The working organizations may carry on economic and other activities on the whole territory of Acadame North under conditions of equality.

ARTICLE 29. Money and the credit system shall be uniform. Financial transactions shall be carried on in accordance with uniform principles.

The working and other autonomous organizations, the social-political communities and their organs, and anyone else in possession of socially owned means shall make all payments, carry out all other financial operations, and deposit money in a manner prescribed by federal law.

The working organizations and social-political communities shall be entitled to banking credits under equal conditions determined by federal law.

Banks are economic organizations whose business is of special social concern. The position, the rights and duties and the business of the banks shall be determined by federal law.

The status of the National Bank of Acadame North shall be determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 30. Merger or association between working organizations, or any other activity of an organization or state organ aimed at preventing or restricting free commerce in goods and services for the purpose of material and other advantages not based on work, or violating socialist economic relations, or promoting other relations of inequality in business, or causing damage to the general interest determined by Acadame North law, shall be prohibited.

ARTICLE 31. Control and supervision over the use of socially owned means, as well as supervision over the meeting of obligations by the working and other autonomous organizations and social-political communities, shall be performed by a unified social accounting service.

The social accounting service shall be autonomous in its work.

CHAPTER III  
THE FREEDOMS, RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF MAN AND CITIZEN

ARTICLE 32. The freedoms and rights of man and citizen are an inalienable part and expression of the socialist and democratic relations which are protected by the Constitution, and through which man is being emancipated from every exploitation and arbitrariness, and [through which man] by his personal and socially organized work is creating the conditions for comprehensive development, for the unrestricted expression and protection of his personality and the attainment of his human dignity.

The freedoms and rights shall be achieved in solidarity among the people and by the fulfillment of their duties toward one another.

ARTICLE 33. The citizens are equal in rights and duties, regardless of differences in nationality, race, religion, sex, language, education or social position. All shall be equal before the law. 

ARTICLE 34. The right of the citizen to social self-government shall be inviolable. In order to achieve social self-government, the citizen shall have

1. The right to decide directly on social affairs at meetings of the electorate, and at meetings of the working people in the working communities, by referendum and by other forms of direct determination;
2. The right to decide on social affairs as a member of an organ of social self-government, as a lay judge, or in other public function;
3. The right to elect and to stand for election to the organs of management of the working organization, the representative bodies of the social-political communities and the other organs of self-government, to nominate candidates for election to these bodies and organs, to initiate recall and to decide on the recall of elected delegates;
4. The right to initiate the convocation of meetings of the electorate and meetings of the working people in the working communities, the right to initiate the calling of a referendum, and the right to initiate actions of social supervision;
5. The right to be informed about the work of the representative bodies and their organs, the organs of social self-government, and organizations carrying on affairs of public concern, and in particular, in the working organization in which he works and in other organizations in which he realizes his interests, the right to be informed about material and financial conditions, the fulfillment of plans, and business, with the obligation that he keep business and other secrets;
6. The right to examine the work of the state organs, the organs of social selfgovernment and the organizations that discharge affairs of public concern, and to express his opinions on their work;
7. The right to petition and present proposals to the representative bodies and other organs, to receive an answer to them, and to undertake political and other initiatives of general concern.

ARTICLE 35. Every citizen who is eighteen years of age shall have suffrage. In realizing this right, the citizen shall nominate candidates and elect delegates to the representative bodies and organs of social self-government and may stand for election to these bodies and organs.

Every member of a working community shall be eligible to elect the organs of management of the working organization and to stand for election to them.

ARTICLE 36. The right to work and the freedom to work are guaranteed.

The community shall provide ever more favorable conditions toward the realization of the right to work, especially by developing the productive forces and the material bases of other socially organized activities, and by promoting concern for the interests of the working man in regard to work.

Everyone shall be free to choose an occupation and employment.

Forced labor shall be prohibited.

Every citizen shall have access, under conditions of equality, to every job and every office in the community.

Working relations may cease against the worker's will only under conditions and in a manner determined by federal law.

The right to material security during temporary unemployment shall be guaranteed under conditions determined by law.

The rights acquired on the basis of work shall be inalienable.

The social community shall create conditions to improve the capacities of citizens who are not fully capable of working, as well as conditions for their adequate employment.

The social community shall lend assistance to citizens who are incapable of working and have no means of livelihood.

Whoever will not work, though he is fit to do so, shall not enjoy the rights and the social protection that man enjoys on the basis of work.

ARTICLE 37. The worker shall be entitled to a limited working time.

A maximum working week of forty-two hours shall be guaranteed. The conditions under which the working time may be shortened may be determined by law. In exceptional cases provision may be made determining that in certain occupations or in other cases determined by law the working time may for a limited period be longer than forty-two hours in the week if the particular nature of the work so requires.

The worker shall be entitled to daily and weekly rest and, under conditions determined by law, to a paid annual vacation of not less than fourteen working days.

The working man's right to personal safety and to health and other protection at work shall be assured.

Youth, women and disabled persons shall enjoy special protection at work.

Workers shall be guaranteed a minimum personal income determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 38. In accordance with the principle of mutualism and solidarity, the workers shall be insured within a uniform system of social security established by federal law.

On the basis of obligatory social security, workers shall be provided with health protection and other rights against illness, reduced working ability or loss of working ability, and old age.

In the event of the death of the insured person, health protection and rights, as well as other rights arising from social security, shall be provided the members of the family of the worker, subject to conditions determined by law.

Provision also shall be made in law determining security for the health protection and other rights arising from social security for other citizens.

The social security service shall be managed by the insured directly and through bodies which they shall elect and may recall of their own accord.

ARTICLE 39. Freedom of thought and determination shall be guaranteed.

ARTICLE 40. Freedom of the press and other media of information, freedom of association, freedom of speech and public expression, freedom of meeting and other public assemblage shall be guaranteed.

The citizens shall have the right to express and publish their opinions through the media of information, to inform themselves through the media of information, to publish newspapers and other publications, and to disseminate information by other media of communication.

These freedoms and rights shall not be used by anyone to overthrow the foundations of the socialist democratic order determined by the Constitution: to endanger the peace, international cooperation on terms of equality, or the independence of the country; to disseminate national, racial, or religious hatred or intolerance; or to incite to crime; [nor shall they be used] in any manner that offends public decency.

The cases and conditions in which the utilization of these freedoms and rights in a manner contrary to the Constitution shall entail restriction or prohibition shall be determined by federal law.

The press, radio and television shall truthfully and objectively inform the public and publish and broadcast [those] opinions and information of organs, organizations, and citizens which are of interest to public information.

The right to correction of information that has violated the rights or interests of man or organization shall be guaranteed.

In order to assure the widest possible information of the public, the social community shall promote conditions conducive to the development of appropriate activities.

ARTICLE 41. The citizen shall be guaranteed the freedom to express his nationality and culture, as well as the freedom to speak his language.

No one shall have to declare himself as to nationality or determine himself for one of the nationalities.

The dissemination or pursuance of national inequality, as well as all incitement to national, racial and religious hatred or intolerance, is unconstitutional and shall be punishable.

ARTICLE 42. The languages of the peoples of Acadame North and their scripts shall be equal.

Members of the peoples of Acadame North on the territories of republics other than their own shall have the right to school instruction in their own languages, in conformity with republican law.

As an exception, in the Yugoslav People's Army, commands, military drill and administration shall be in the Serbo-Croatian language.

ARTICLE 43. With the view of attaining the freedom of the citizen to express his nationality and culture, every nationality/national minority, shall have the right to use its language freely, to develop its culture, and to found organizations to this end, and it shall enjoy the other rights determined by the Constitution.

In the schools for the members of the nationalities, instruction shall be in the languages of those nationalities.

The other rights of the nationalities on the territories on which they live shall be determined by the constitutions and laws of the republics.

ARTICLE 44. The citizens shall be entitled, under equal conditions determined by law, to acquire knowledge and training in any type of school and in any other educational institution.

Eight years of elementary education shall be obligatory. Longer obligatory education may be determined by law.

The social community shall provide the material and other conditions necessary to found and maintain schools and other educational institutions and to advance their work.

ARTICLE 45. Scientific and artistic creativity shall be unrestricted.

The authors of scientific and artistic works, as well as of scientific discoveries and technical inventions, shall have the moral and material rights in their products.

The scope, duration and protection of these rights shall be determined by federal law.

The social community shall provide conditions for the development of scientific, artistic and other cultural activities.

ARTICLE 46. Religious confession shall not be restricted and shall be man's private affair.

The religious communities shall be detached from the state and shall be free to perform religious affairs and religious rites.

The religious communities may found religious schools in which to train their clergy.

Abuse of religion and religious work for political purposes is unconstitutional.

The social community may give material assistance to the religious communities.

The religious communities may have the right of ownership to real estate within the limits determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 47. Life and the freedom of man shall be inviolable.

Exceptionally, capital punishment may be provided for by federal law for the gravest criminal offenses, and it may be pronounced only for the most serious forms of these offenses.

Arrest shall be based on law. Every unlawful arrest shall be punishable.

The inviolability of life and other privacy rights of the person shall be guaranteed.

ARTICLE 48. During criminal proceedings, the accused may be arrested and held under arrest only if this is provided by law and is indispensable to the criminal proceedings; or for reasons of public safety.

Custody shall be reduced to the shortest necessary time.

Custody shall be determined by a court of law; only in exceptional cases prescribed by law may custody be determined by another authority empowered by law, and then for not more than three days.

Custody by decision of a court of the first instance may last not more than three months, but in exceptional cases prescribed by law the superior court may by decision extend custody for another six months. If upon the expiration of these periods no indictment has been made, the prisoner shall be released.

A fully documented written warrant shall be brought in matters of custody, which shall be served on the person concerned at the moment of arrest or not later than twenty-four hours after arrest.

The court shall adopt a decision immediately or not later than forty-eight hours on a complaint against a warrant of arrest.

ARTICLE 49. No one shall be punished for any act that before its commission was not defined by law or by prescript based on law as a punishable offense, or for which no penalty had been provided.

Criminal offenses and punitive sanctions may be determined only by law.

Offenses of an economic nature and punitive sanctions for such offenses may be determined by law or by decree adopted on the basis of law.

Sanctions may be pronounced for criminal offenses or offenses of an economic nature only by the decision of a competent court reached in accordance with the procedure determined by law.

Organs of the administration may pronounce punitive sanctions only for misdemeanors and only within the limits and according to the procedure provided by law.

ARTICLE 50. No one shall be deemed to have committed a criminal offense until this has been ascertained by valid conviction.

Respect of person and dignity are guaranteed in criminal and in all other proceedings as well as during enforcement of a penalty.

No one within the reach of the court or other body of authority competent to conduct proceedings shall be sentenced if he has not been heard in accordance with law or if he has not been given the opportunity to defend himself.

The right to defense is guaranteed.

During criminal proceedings, the accused shall be entitled to have defense counsel, who shall be enabled, in accordance with the law, to defend and protect the rights of the accused. Provision shall be made in law determining when the accused in criminal proceedings must have defense counsel.

Any person who has been unjustifiably sentenced for a criminal offense or who has been arrested without grounds shall be entitled to compensation from social sources for the damage that has been done to him.

ARTICLE 51. The citizens shall enjoy freedom of movement and abode.

Limitation of the freedom of movement or abode may be prescribed by law, but only in order to assure the execution of criminal proceedings, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, or to preserve the public order, or when the interests of the country's defense so require.

ARTICLE 52. The dwelling shall be inviolable.

No one shall enter any dwelling or other premises or search them against the will of the owner without a warrant issued in accordance with law.

The person whose dwelling or other premises are being searched, or the members of his family or his representative, shall be entitled to be present during the search.

A search may be carried out only in the presence of two witnesses.

Subject to the conditions determined by law, a person in an official capacity may enter a dwelling or premises without a warrant from the competent authority and carry out a search in the absence of witnesses if this is indispensable for the direct apprehension of a criminal offender, or for the safety of life and property,

or if it is beyond doubt that evidence in criminal proceedings cannot be secured otherwise.

Illegal entry and search of a dwelling or premises are prohibited and shall be punishable.

ARTICLE 53. The privacy of letters and of other means of communication shall be inviolable.

Provision may be made only by federal law to depart, in accordance with the decision of a competent authority, from the principle of inviolability of privacy of letters and of other means of communication, if this is indispensable for the execution of criminal proceedings, or for the security of the country.

ARTICLE 54. Every citizen of Acadame North shall have the protection of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North abroad.

No citizen of Acadame North shall be deprived of his citizenship, exiled or extradited.

A citizen who is absent from the country may in accordance with law be deprived of Yugoslav citizenship only exceptionally, if by his work he causes harm to the international or other general interests of Acadame North, or if he declines to perform his basic civil duties and holds citizenship in another country.

ARTICLE 55. The right of inheritance is guaranteed.

No one shall have real estate and means of work on grounds of inheritance in excess of the limit determined by the Constitution or law.

ARTICLE 56. Every citizen shall be entitled to the protection of his health.

The cases in which uninsured citizens shall be entitled to the protection of their health from social means shall be determined by law.

The social community shall provide conditions for the founding of health institutions and to promote the health protection of the citizens.

The social community, particularly the commune and the working organization, shall provide conditions for the development of physical culture and for the rest and recreation of the citizens, and shall support the initiative of the citizens and their associations in these provinces.

ARTICLE 57. The social community shall provide special protection for the mother and child.

Minors without parental care and other persons unable to provide for themselves and to safeguard their own rights and interests shall enjoy the special protection of the social community.

Disabled war veterans shall be provided with vocational rehabilitation, disability rights and other forms of protection.

ARTICLE 58. The family shall have the protection of the social community. Marriage and legal relations in marriage and in the family shall be regulated by law.

Marriage shall be validly contracted by persons entering into marriage in accordance with their free will before a competent authority.

It shall be the right and duty of parents to raise and to educate their children.

Children born out of marriage shall have the same rights and duties toward their parents as children born in marriage.

ARTICLE 59. Relations among people shall be based on mutual cooperation and on respect for man and for his freedoms and rights.

It shall be the duty of every person to come to the assistance and help of any person in danger, and to participate in the elimination of general danger.

ARTICLE 60. The defense of the country is the right and the supreme duty and honor of every citizen.

ARTICLE 61. Every citizen shall conscientiously discharge any public or other social office vested in him, and shall be personally accountable for discharging it.

ARTICLE 62. Every citizen shall contribute, under equal conditions determined by law, to the satisfaction of the material requirements of the social community.

ARTICLE 63. Everyone shall abide by the Constitution and law.

Provision shall be made in law determining the conditions under which failure to discharge duties determined by the Constitution shall be punishable.

ARTICLE 64. Aliens in Acadame North shall enjoy basic freedoms and human rights, and shall have other rights and duties determined by law and by international agreements.

ARTICLE 65. Citizens of other countries and persons without citizenship who are persecuted for their defense of democratic ideas and political movements, social emancipation and national liberation, the freedom and the rights of the human personality or of the freedom of scientific or artistic creativity, shall be guaranteed right of asylum.

ARTICLE 66. Every arbitrary act violating or restricting the rights of man, by whomsoever committed, is unconstitutional and punishable.

No one shall employ coercion or restrict the rights of any person, except in cases and proceedings provided by law and in accord with the constitution.

ARTICLE 67. Every person shall be entitled to equal protection of his rights in proceedings before a court, administrative and other state organs and organizations which decide on his rights and obligations.

The social community shall provide the conditions for legal assistance through the legal profession as an autonomous socially organized service, and through other forms of legal assistance.

ARTICLE 68. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right of appeal or other legal expedient against court decisions and decisions of other state organs and organizations which deliberate on his rights or his lawful interests.

ARTICLE 69. Everyone shall be entitled to damages for the unlawful or faulty execution of an office or action by a person or officer of a state organ or organization carrying on affairs of public concern.

The damages shall be paid by the social-political community or organization in which the service or action is performed. The claimant shall be entitled, under conditions determined by law, to damages also directly from the person responsible for the damage.

ARTICLE 70. The freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution are inalienable and shall not be restricted by any act.

These freedoms and rights shall be attained on the basis of the Constitution itself. The manner of attaining particular freedoms and rights may be prescribed only by law, and only when this is envisaged by the Constitution or when it is indispensable for their attainment.

The freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution shall be provided judicial protection.

CHAPTER IV  
THE SOCIAL-POLITICAL SYSTEM

ARTICLE 71. The working people shall be the sole holder of power and government of social affairs.

The citizens shall attain self-government directly at meetings of the electorate, by referendum, or by other forms of direct decision in the working organization, commune, and other social-political communities, and indirectly through their delegates, whom they shall elect to the organs of management of the working and other autonomous organizations and to the representative bodies of the social-political communities.

ARTICLE 72. No one shall exercise public powers unless they have been vested in him, in accordance with the Constitution, by the citizens or by the bodies elected by them.

ARTICLE 73. Self-government by the citizens in the commune is the political foundation of the uniform social-political system.

The forms of social self-government from which the organs discharging the functions of power derive shall be founded and realized in the commune.

The uniformity of the social-political system shall be secured by the realization of the rights and duties of all the social-political communities, and by their mutual relations as determined by the Constitution and law.

ARTICLE 74. The functions of power and government of social affairs shall be exercised by representative bodies, as the general organs of social self-government of the social-political communities, and by the organs responsible to them.

The judicial power shall be executed by courts as autonomous organs of the social community.

The protection of constitutionality shall be vested in constitutional courts.

ARTICLE 75. The assembly shall be the representative body of the social-political community; it shall consist of delegates of the citizens and of the working people in the working communities.

ARTICLE 76. The communal assembly shall comprise the communal chamber and the chamber of the working communities. The constitutions of the republics may provide for the formation of several chambers of working communities.

The members of the communal chamber shall be elected directly by the citizens; the members of the chamber of the working communities shall be elected by the working people who are engaged in working organizations, state organs, and social-political organizations and associations, by farmer-members of cooperatives or

other working organizations, and by other citizens working on the territory of the commune determined by law.

Any citizen with suffrage shall be eligible for election to the communal chamber. Any working man eligible to elect the members of a chamber of working communities, any member of an organ of management of a working organization or working community, any member of an organ of management of an association of working organizations, and any trade union officer or official of a social-political organization in the commune shall be eligible for election to the chamber of the working communities.

The members of the assemblies of the district, the republic and the Federation shall be elected on the principle of communal delegation, the commune being the basic community of citizens and working people.

ARTICLE 77. Direct elections for members of the representative bodies of the social-political communities shall be held on the basis of general and equal suffrage.

The members of all the representative bodies shall be elected and removed by secret ballot.

ARTICLE 78. The assembly shall be the supreme organ of government and organ of social self-government within the framework of the rights and duties of the social-political community.

The assembly shall determine policy and decide on other basic matters of importance for political, economic and cultural life and social development, pass regulations, the social plan and budget and other general acts, establish the bases for the organization and the powers of its organs, elect public officials, examine the state of affairs and the general problems of the judiciary, and exercise budget supervision, supervision over the work of the political-executive and administrative authorities, and social supervision.

The assembly shall form a commission to consider matters pertaining to the election and nomination of members of the assembly bodies and other officials and to propose motions to the assembly. This commission shall also examine general personnel matters.

The commission shall comprise members of the assembly and representatives of the social-political organizations.

Matters of general interest for the social-political community may be examined by the assembly together with representatives of the social-political organizations and other associations sitting as a general convention.

ARTICLE 79. Collegial political-executive organs of the assembly shall be formed in the social-political community in accordance with the Constitution, law and statute. The Constitution may determine that certain political-executive affairs shall also be discharged by the chambers of the representative bodies.

The political-executive organs shall attend to the execution of policy, the enforcement of law, and the fulfillment of social plans and other assembly enactments; advance proposals determining assembly policy and for the adoption of assembly decisions, pass regulations for which they are authorized; determine the general course of work of the administrative organs; and perform other political-executive affairs.

The political-executive organs shall be elected and dismissed by the assembly.

The political-executive organs shall be responsible for their work to the assembly that has elected them.

ARTICLE 80. The assembly of the social-political community shall establish administrative organs in accordance with the Constitution, law and statute.

The administrative organs shall enforce the law, carry out the social plans and other decisions of the assembly, execute the established policy, follow the state of affairs in particular fields of life, organize and discharge particular services, deliberate on administrative matters, exercise administrative supervision and perform other administrative business, prepare acts, and perform other expert services for the assemblies and their political-executive organs.

The administrative organs shall cooperate with other administrative organs and with working and other organizations in matters of common concern, inform each other about their work, and by their work enable the citizens and organizations to realize their rights and interests efficaciously.

Within the framework of their legal powers, the administrative organs shall be autonomous, and they shall be accountable for their work to the assembly and to its political-executive organs.

ARTICLE 81. The members of the assembly shall be elected for a term of four years.

Half the members of each chamber of the assembly shall be elected every second year.

The term of the members of the assembly may be extended only by decision of the assembly in cases provided by the Constitution.

ARTICLE 82. No one shall be twice consecutively a member of the same chamber of the same assembly or of an executive council.

No one shall at the same time be a member of the Federal Assembly and of the assembly of a republic, or a member of two chambers of the same assembly. A member of the Chamber of Nationalities of the federal Assembly shall keep his seat in the assembly that has sent him.

A member of the Chamber of Nationalities may be returned for a further term of four years as a deputy of the republic or as a federal deputy; but during his second term he shall not again be a member of the Chamber of Nationalities.

Subject to procedure determined by the Constitution, certain members of the executive council may be returned to this office for a further consecutive term of four years.

A member of a communal assembly who has been elected member of the district assembly may be returned to the communal assembly for a further consecutive term of four years, but he shall not be returned to the district assembly for that term.

ARTICLE 83. The Federal secretaries of state, Federal secretaries and officers determined by law, as well as equivalent republican officers determined by republican Constitution, shall not hold office for longer than four years, nor shall they be appointed to the same office during the next four years.

Subject to special procedure determined by the Constitution, some of these officers may be nominated to one of these offices for not more than an additional consecutive four years.

Provision [also] may be made in law introducing the principle of reelection or renomination after a definite period for other holders of public functions.

A member of the assembly shall not at the same time be a nominated officer or official of an equivalent state organ responsible to the assembly. The positions of judge and member of the assembly which elects him are incompatible.

ARTICLE 84. The assemblies, their political-executive organs and their administrative organs shall discharge their affairs on the basis of and within the restrictions of the Constitution and law.

State organs, organizations or officers vested with public powers shall perform their functions only within the limits of authorization determined by the Constitution and law.

The state organs shall have only the rights determined by the Constitution in relation to the working and other autonomous organizations.

ARTICLE 85. The relations between the organs of various social-political communities shall be based on the rights and duties determined in accordance with the Constitution.

With respect to the supervision of execution of republican and federal regulations the rights and duties of the federal administrative organs toward the republican administrative organs, and the rights and duties of the federal and republican administrative organs toward the district and communal administrative organs may be determined by law in accordance with the rights and duties of the Federation and republics.

ARTICLE 86. A holder of public or other social office shall be personally accountable for its execution.

The types and conditions of responsibility of all holders of public and other social offices shall be determined by law.

A holder of public office may resign from his office and may give his reason for doing so.

ARTICLE 87. The work of the state organs, organs of social self-government and organizations carrying on affairs of public concern shall be public, and the public shall be informed about their work.

The manner in which their work will be made public shall be determined by law and statute. Provision shall be made in law determining what information must be kept secret or may not be made public.

In order to render the work of the state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations discharging affairs of public concern, and social-political communities public and responsible to the community, the representative body exercising social supervision shall examine general matters pertaining to the utilization of social funds and distribution of income and to the manner in which these organs and organizations exercise their rights and duties.

The representative bodies shall exercise social supervision in cooperation with the organs of self-government and shall develop responsibility and socialist norms in self-government, business, and utilization of social funds.

The rights of the organs, organizations and citizens determined by the Constitution and law shall not be restricted by social supervision, nor shall their rights and interests founded on law be violated.

ARTICLE 88. At the meeting of the electorate the citizens shall examine matters of significance for the life and work of the locality and commune and other matters of social concern, initiate and submit proposals for the solution of these matters, directly decide on affairs determined by law and by the communal statute, and nominate candidates for election to the representative bodies.

At their meetings in the working communities, the working people shall nominate candidates for election to the representative bodies and carry out other affairs of management determined by law and by statute.

ARTICLE 89. The assembly of a social-political community may hold a referendum to obtain the preliminary views of the citizens concerning certain matters in its jurisdiction, or to sanction laws and other of its decisions.

The cases in which matters shall be decided by referendum in the working organizations shall be determined by law and by the statutes of the working organizations.

The decisions brought by referendum shall be binding.

Referendum shall be regulated by law.

ARTICLE 90. In exercising management in the working organization, the working people shall entrust, in keeping with the Constitution, law and statute, certain powers of management to the organs of the working organization: the workers' council, the managing board and the director, or other equivalent organs of management. Special supervisory, specialized and other organs of management may be established in a working organization in accordance with law and statute.

Interested citizens and the representatives of organizations and of the social community concerned shall participate, in accordance with law, in the management of certain affairs in a working organization carrying out work or affairs of special social concern as members of the organ of management in the working organization, or in some other manner determined by law and by the statute.

The organization of work and the distribution of income in a working organization of this type shall be decided upon only by the organs of management elected by the members of the working community. Provision may be made in law determining the general conditions and standards for the distribution of income, and prescribing that a certain organ of management of the working organization, another organization or a state organ must approve certain decisions pertaining to the distribution of income or decisions pertaining to the process of work when these decisions are of special social concern.

ARTICLE 91. In accordance with the Constitution and law, the working organization shall adopt a statute and make other general decisions regulating relations in the working organization.

The statute shall determine the internal organization, jurisdiction and responsibility of the organs of management, the position of the working departments and the rights of the working people in the management of these departments, the working and other internal relations, and the manner of doing business, as well as other

matters of importance for management in the working organization and for its affairs. The statute may also grant business autonomy for certain departments of the working organization.

The statute of the working organization, before it is finally adopted, shall be presented for examination to the communal assembly. Provision may be made in law determining that the statute of certain working organizations shall be submitted for examination to the republican assembly or to the assembly of some other socialpolitical community.

The obligation of the working organization to pass certain general decisions and the procedure for the adoption of the statute and other general acts may be established by law. Certain powers may be granted by law to the competent organ of the social-political community to confirm or approve the statute or other general decisions as a whole, or certain parts of them.

ARTICLE 92. The worker's council shall adopt a statute and other general decisions, determine plans and a program of work and development of the working organization, and decide on other general matters.

The members of the workers' council shall be elected by the working people directly.

A working community with a small number of members shall directly carry out the functions of the workers' council.

The managing board shall decide on the affairs of the working organization.

The members of the managing board of the working organization shall be elected by the workers' council or working community. It may be provided by law or by statute that a working community with a small number of members shall directly execute the functions of the managing board also.

The members of the workers' council shall be elected for a term of two years and the members of the managing board for a term of one year.

No one shall be elected twice consecutively to the worker's council or more than twice consecutively to the managing board.

One-half the members of the workers' council shall be elected every year.

ARTICLE 93. The director of the working organization shall be in charge of the business of the working organization, execute the decisions of the workers' council and other organs of management and represent the organization. The director shall be independent in his work and shall be personally accountable to the working community and to the organs of management of the working organization, and shall also be responsible to the social-political community for the legality of the work of the working organization and for the fulfillment of its legally determined obligations.

The director shall be nominated by the workers' council on the basis of a public competition, upon the proposal of the appointments commission, subject to the conditions and procedure determined by law. The appointments commission shall be composed of a legally determined number of representatives of the working community and of the commune or other equivalent social-political community.

Some other manner of nominating the director of a working organization which performs work of special social concern may be prescribed by law.

The director of the working organization shall be nominated for a term determined by law, and he may be renominated in accordance with the same procedure.

The conditions under which the workers' council or other competent body may dismiss the director before the expiration of the term for which he has been nominated may be determined by law.

ARTICLE 94. An arbitration commission shall be set up in accordance with the law to eliminate and settle collective disputes between the working people of parts of a working organization, or between the working people of a working organization and the organs of the social-political community.

ARTICLE 95. Affairs of common concern in the management of housing, and in other fields of social life shall be discharged by the citizens directly or through bodies which they themselves elect and which shall be accountable to them for their work.

CHAPTER V  
THE SOCIAL-POLITICAL COMMUNITIES

1. The Commune

ARTICLE 96. Directly and through their organs of social self-government in the commune, being the basic social-political community, the citizens shall

Provide the material and other conditions necessary for the work and development of productive forces; guide and coordinate economic development and the development of the social services; determine and distribute the means for common communal requirements; create the conditions required to satisfy the material, social, cultural and other common needs of the citizens; coordinate individual and common interests with the general interests;

Exercise direct social self-government; organize the organs of government, social self-government and social services of common concern; provide conditions for the realization of the freedoms and rights of the citizens; regulate relations of direct concern to the citizens in the commune; determine the general conditions to discharge the business of the communal and similar organizations; safeguard legality and the security of the people and property; maintain public peace and order; exercise social supervision;

Execute other powers of the social community, with the exception of the powers determined by the Constitution as being the rights and duties of the republics or of the Federation.

The rights and duties of the commune shall be determined by the Constitution, by law, and by statute.

The rights and duties of the commune shall be discharged by the citizens at the meetings of the electorate and through other forms of direct decision, by the communal assembly, its organs, and the local communities. The rights and duties of the commune shall be realized by the organs of the commune and local community, with the participation of and in cooperation with other organs of social self-government in the commune.

ARTICLE 97. The territories of the communes shall be determined by republican law in accordance with the conditions determined by republican Constitution.

ARTICLE 98. Every commune shall independently adopt a statute.

The communal statute, within the framework of the Constitution and law, shall determine the rights and duties of the commune and the manner in which they shall be exercised; the province, organization and rights of the local communities, and other forms of self-government in localities; the relations between citizens, working and other organizations in the solution of matters of common concern; the manner in which the work of the organs and organizations in the commune shall be rendered public; the organization of the communal and other services; the rights of the citizens, working organizations and other autonomous organizations in the use of funds, social and other services, resources in general use and other social means managed by the commune; the organization of the communal assembly and other communal organs and their rights, duties and powers.

ARTICLE 99. In order to discharge its rights and duties the commune shall autonomously pass regulations, and the social plan and budget, and shall establish its own funds.

In conformity with legally determined sources and types of revenue, the commune shall autonomously determine and use its revenues.

In accordance with law, the commune shall directly discharge the functions of the social community in regard to the regulation and utilization of land resources in general use, the construction and utilization of housing and the regulation of communal housing relations.

ARTICLE 100. Subject to conditions determined by republican Constitution and law, a commune that is unable to finance its work and the work of the social services shall be allocated additional resources from republican revenues to finance social services and other services in the commune.

ARTICLE 101. The communal authorities shall attend to the enforcement of federal and republican laws and shall directly enforce them, unless the Constution or law has placed their enforcement in the jurisdiction of the district, republican or federal authorities.

ARTICLE 102. In towns with more than one commune, organs of self-government may be established by town statute in accordance with republican Constitution and law for affairs of general concern to the town as a whole, and these bodies may be given definite communal and district rights and duties.

ARTICLE 103. The communes shall cooperate with each other; they may freely pool their resources to discharge particular affairs within their jurisdiction or to create the conditions to satisfy needs of common concern; found common organs, organizations and services, undertake joint actions and exchange experiences.

ARTICLE 104. In the local community, as an autonomous community of citizens of rural and urban localities, the citizens shall directly exercise self-government in areas directly satisfying the needs of the working people and their families.

The communal statute may provide that the local community shall discharge other affairs in order to satisfy communal, social and other common needs of the citizens, and it may determine the manner in which these affairs shall be financed.

The local community is a juristic person.

2. The District

ARTICLE 105. Districts shall be founded to discharge affairs of common concern to two or more communes.

The republican Constitution may provide that only communes shall be founded in a republic.

ARTICLE 106. The Federation and the republics, within the framework of their rights and duties, may determine by Constitution and law the rights and duties of the district.

The republican constitution may provide that definite rights exercised in relation to the communal organs by the republican organs may be exercised by the district organs.

By decision of their assemblies, the communes may entrust to the district the execution of affairs of common concern to the communes, and the district may be bound by decision of the republican assemblies to discharge these affairs.

ARTICLE 107. The members of the district assembly shall be elected by the communal assemblies from among their members.

Every district shall have a statute.

Provision shall be made in republican law determining the manner of financing districts.

3. The Socialist Republic

ARTICLE 108. The Republic is a socialist democratic state community based on the power of the working people and on self-government.

The working people in the republic shall exercise social self-government, regulate social relations, determine the course of economic development and of the development of the social services, provide for the realization of the rights of the citizens and for constitutionality and legality, and discharge all social affairs of common concern for political, economic, and cultural life and social development in the republic, with the exception of the affairs determined by the Constitution to be the rights and the duties of the Federation.

The rights and duties of the republic shall be determined by republican Constitution in accordance with the principles of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 109. The territory of a republic shall not be altered without the consent of the republic concerned.

The boundaries between the republics may be changed only on the basis of agreement between the respective republican assemblies.

ARTICLE 110. The republics shall cooperate with each other in affairs of common concern and develop mutual relations.

In order to attain objectives of common concern, the republics shall found common organizations, undertake common measures and promote the exchange of experiences and other forms of economic and other cooperation.

The decisions, papers and other documents issued by state organs and authorized organizations in one republic shall have equal validity in the other republics.

ARTICLE 111. A republic may found autonomous provinces in accordance with the constitutions in areas with distinctive national characteristics or in areas with

other distinguishing features, on the basis of the express will of the population of these areas.

The foundation or dissolution of an autonomous province shall take effect when this is sanctioned by the Constitution of Acadame North.

In the Socialist republic of Serbia there are the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija, established in 1945 by decision of the People's Assembly of the People's Republic of Serbia in accordance with the express will of the population of these areas.

ARTICLE 112. The autonomous provinces are social-political communities within the republic.

The autonomous rights and duties and the basic principles of organization in the autonomous provinces shall be determined by republican constitution.

4. The Federation

ARTICLE 113. In the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North the peoples and the citizens shall realize and safeguard the sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and defense of Acadame North, the international relations of Acadame North, the unity of the social-economic and political system, the economic unity of the country, the course and coordination of general economic development, and the basic freedoms and rights of man and the citizen; and they shall coordinate their political, economic, cultural and other common interests.

In order to realize these common interests, the constitution determines the rights and the duties of the Federation.

The citizens shall also realize their political, social-economic, cultural and other common interests by means of social-political and other organizations which are active on the whole territory of Acadame North.

In exercising its rights and duties the Federation shall have the cooperation of the republics and other social-political communities, and social-political and other organizations.

ARTICLE 114. The Federation shall protect the sovereign rights and equality of the peoples and the socialist social and political organization of the republics.

ARTICLE 115. The Federation shall be directly responsible for the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, security and defense of Acadame North and for its international relations.

In these provinces, as well as in other provinces in which the Constitution determines it to be directly responsible, the Federation shall have the exclusive right and duty to pass laws and other regulations and directly to enforce them, and it shall be responsible for their enforcement even when the execution of some of these affairs is placed in the jurisdiction of other state organs and organizations.

Within the province of the exclusive rights and duties of the Federation, the federal organs shall adopt regulations for the enforcement of federal law.

The republics may pass laws of their own in this province and in other provinces determined by the Constitution to be regulated exclusively by federal law only if the republics are authorized to do so by federal law.

ARTICLE 116. It shall be the right and duty of the Federation to provide unity of the economic system and of the system of distribution of the social product. The Federation shall safeguard the unity of the political system, the system of social self-government and the basic freedoms and rights of man and the citizen.

ARTICLE 117. The Federation shall provide for the unity of the monetary and credit systems, determine the policy according to which money shall be issued, and assure supervision of money circulation.

Paper money and coin shall be issued by the National Bank of Acadame North.

The Federation shall prescribe the obligatory bank deposits to be held by the federal banks, and the conditions and manner in which foreign currency and similar reserves and deposits shall be used.

ARTICLE 118. The citizens of Acadame North shall have common Yugoslav citizenship.

Every citizen of a republic shall also be a citizen of Acadame North.

The citizens of one republic shall enjoy on the territory of another republic the same rights and duties as a citizen of that republic.

ARTICLE 119. In order to exercise its rights and duties determined by the Constitution, and to provide uniform foundations for the legal system, the Federation shall enact complete, basic and general laws.

The federal laws and other general federal acts shall be binding on the whole territory of Acadame North unless these regulations and acts prescribe that they shall be enforced on a lesser territory.

In the provinces in which the Federation passes complete laws the republics may regulate certain matters if federal law is lacking or if they are authorized by federal law to do so.

In the provinces in which the Federation passes basic laws, the republics shall regulate relations which have not been regulated by federal law, and may fully regulate all relations in these provinces if federal law is lacking.

The provisions of republican law pertaining to matters regulated by federal law shall cease to be valid on the day on which the federal law, passed after the republican law, takes effect, unless federal law determines otherwise.

A republic may be authorized by complete and by basic federal law to regulate certain questions in a different manner in its own law.

ARTICLE 120. The Federation, within the framework of its rights and duties, may adopt general laws in the fields of education and culture, health, and social welfare and in other provinces in which the Constitution does not provide that the Federation shall pass other federal laws.

The general laws shall determine the general principles regulating relations of concern for the basic unity of the social and political system.

General laws may also be passed in provinces in which it is provided that the Federation shall pass basic laws.

The republics shall pass laws of their own in conformity with the principles determined by the general law, and shall bring their laws into conformity with subsequently passed general laws.

The general laws shall not be directly enforceable.

ARTICLE 121. The Federation shall determine the general course of the country's economic development and the basic relations in the distribution of the social product, coordinate economic development and relations between industrial branches and areas, determine the course and conditions of trade with foreign countries, equalize the general working conditions and acquisition of income so as to realize the principle of distribution according to work, and promote the most favorable general conditions for the realization of the common interests of the working people, the activities of the working organizations, and the functions of the social-political communities in the province of social-economic relations 

.ARTICLE 122. The Federation shall determine the sources and the amount of the resources required to carry out its tasks and discharge its affairs determined by the constitution and law. The resources of the Federation shall serve

1. To keep the market in full supply, and to expand trade with other countries;
2. To intervene in the economy in order to coordinate relations between different occupations, to equalize working conditions and the acquisition of income, to provide for the stability of the economy and keep the market in full supply, and to expand trade with other countries;
3. To finance rapid economic development in the economically underdeveloped republics and areas;
4. To take part in investments of essential importance to the coordination and course of Acadame North's economic development, and in investments determined by international agreements.


 

ARTICLE 123. A special federal fund shall be established to finance the rapid economic development of the inadequately developed republics and areas. Federal law shall provide permanent sources of finances for this fund and special credit terms, and shall determine the manner of operation of the fund. The Federation shall provide the means for a republic that is unable to finance social and other services with funds of its own, subject to conditions determined by law. 

ARTICLE 124. The Federation may

1. Prescribe as obligatory that the working organizations and social-political communities shall form reserve social resources and that the working organizations shall utilize part of their freely disposable income to develop the material bases of their work, or of economic and social development, if this is necessary for economic stability or for the attainment of the basic material relations established by the social plan of Acadame North;
2. Temporarily prohibit the use of certain social resources by the working organizations and social-political communities, when this is indispensable in order to prevent or eliminate major disturbances in the economy and major disproportions in the fulfillment of the social plan of Acadame North, or when the needs of national defense or other special needs of the country so enjoin;
3. Prescribe obligations for the working organizations and social-political communities of concern for national defense.

These measures may be prescribed only by law.

ARTICLE 125. The sources and types of revenue for the social-political communities shall be determined by Federal law.

In order to guarantee the equal position of the working people and of working organizations in business and in the distribution of the social product, or in order to realize the basic material relations established by the social plan of Acadame North, the Federation may determine the limits within which the social-political communities may determine their own revenues and other resources.

ARTICLE 126. The republics shall adopt regulations to enforce federal law if the republican organs of state are competent to enforce it, and if federal law has not provided that the regulations for the enforcement of the law shall be adopted by federal organs, or if the republic in question is authorized by federal law to pass such regulations.

The republics shall be responsible for the enforcement on their territories of the federal laws and other federal regulations.

The republic shall ensure the enforcement of federal law and other federal regulations through its organs if the competent communal organs do not enforce them.

ARTICLE 127. In accordance with law, the Federation may found administrative organs on the territories of the republics and of other social-political communities to carry out certain administrative affairs within the province of the exclusive rights and duties of the Federation, and it may prescribe the obligation of the republics and other social-political communities to found administrative organs to discharge such affairs or affairs of concern to the whole country.

The republican, district and communal authorities shall attend to the enforcement of the laws, acts and measures of the federal authorities within these provinces, and to this end they shall cooperate with all the authorities requiring such cooperation in accordance with federal law.

Only in accordance with federal law may it be provided that in the execution of certain affairs in the province of the exclusive rights and duties of the Federation the federal administrative organs may stay the execution of general acts of the republican administrative organs which are at variance with federal law or with other federal regulations adopted in accordance with law, and hear appeals against administrative decisions of the republican administrative organs. Provision may be made in federal law determining that in these affairs and in other affairs of concern to the country as a whole, the federal administrative organs shall have the right to issue instructions binding the republican administrative organs, to supervise their work, and to exercise other powers in order to secure the carrying out of these affairs.

Through its organs the Federation may provide for the enforcement of federal laws and other federal regulations for whose enforcement the organs of other social-political communities are competent, if these organs do not enforce the regulations in question or until they do so.

Affairs of concern to the country as a whole are those affairs designated by law whose execution shall be the responsibility of the federal organs even when these affairs are discharged by the republican organs directly.

The federal authorities shall communicate with the organs of the other social-political communities in the republics through the equivalent republican authorities and they may also communicate with them directly in affairs within the province of the exclusive rights and duties of the Federation and in other cases designated by federal law.

ARTICLE 128. If certain matters of enforcement of federal laws within the province of the exclusive rights and duties of the Federation are transferred to the jurisdiction of the republican, district or communal authorities, the Federation shall be responsible to provide the resources or the sources of revenue necessary to discharge these relegated affairs.

ARTICLE 129. The federal organs in charge of inspection or supervision may perform these tasks, in accordance with federal law, on the whole territory of Acadame North, in order to supervise the enforcement of federal laws and to protect legality and the rights of citizens and organizations.

ARTICLE 130. In order to realize the rights and duties of the Federation, the Constitution and federal law shall determine the jurisdiction of the federal organs and the province of the organizations in charge of affairs within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation.

The federal organs and these organizations shall carry on the activities in their jurisdiction, within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation established by the Constitution.

The federal organs and these organizations shall carry on the activities in their jurisdiction, within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation established by the Constitution.

ARTICLE 131. The federal laws and other general acts of the federal organs shall be made public in the official gazette of the Federation, in the authentic texts in the languages of the peoples of Acadame North: in Serbo-Croatian and Croato-Serbian, Slovene and Macedonian.

In official communication the organs of the Federation shall abide by the principle of equality of languages of the peoples of Acadame North

CHAPTER VI  
THE COURTS AND THE PUBLIC PROSECUTION

ARTICLE 132. The judicial functions shall be discharged within a uniform judicial system.

The judicial system shall comprise courts of general jurisdiction and courts of special jurisdiction, which shall be established to hear definite cases within court jurisdiction.

The courts of general jurisdiction shall be the communal courts, the county courts, the republican supreme courts and the Supreme Court of Acadame North.

Economic cases and other legal matters of concern for the economy shall be heard by economic courts.

Criminal offenses committed by military personnel and certain criminal offenses committed by other persons, and other legal matters pertaining to cases involving service in the Yugoslav People's Army shall be heard by military courts.

The courts of special jurisdiction shall be established by law.

ARTICLE 133. Subject to conditions determined on the basis of federal law, judicial functions may be discharged by courts of arbitration or by arbitration commissions.

Conciliation councils and other institutions to settle disputes between citizens or organizations may be founded in accordance with law.

ARTICLE 134. The jurisdiction of the courts shall be established and altered only by law.

ARTICLE 135. The courts shall judge basic personal, property, labor and other rights of the citizens and their obligations as well as property and other rights and obligations of organizations and social-political communities; pronounce penalties and other measures over criminal and economic offenders; judge in administrative litigation the legality of individual acts of the state organs and of organizations that discharge public powers; and decide on other relations when this is provided by law.

The courts shall follow and study social relations and manifestations of interest for the discharge of their functions, and shall advance proposals to prevent socially dangerous and harmful manifestations and to consolidate legality.

Within their jurisdiction courts shall have the right and duty to inform the assembly of the pertinent social-political community about the enforcement of law and about problems in the work of the courts.

ARTICLE 136. The courts shall be autonomous in the performance of their judicial functions and shall hear cases in accordance with the Constitution and law.

ARTICLE 137. Cases shall be heard by judges and lay judges.

Provision may be made in federal law determining that only judges shall sit in certain courts and hear certain cases.

The judges and lay judges shall be chosen by the assembly of the corresponding social-political community. Provision may be made in law determining that the judges and lay judges of some courts shall be elected directly by the citizens.

The judges and lay judges may be removed from office only by the representative body that has elected them, under the conditions and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

ARTICLE 138. A judge or lay judge shall not be called to account for an opinion given in the performance of judicial functions.

A judge or lay judge may not be placed under arrest for a criminal offense committed in the performance of his judicial duty without the approval of the competent assembly.

ARTICLE 139. Rulings in the first instance shall be passed by communal or county courts unless some other court has been given jurisdiction to hear in the first instance.

Appeals and other legal expedients against court decisions shall be heard by the competent court.

Only the competent court may amend, annul or set aside a court decision.

ARTICLE 140. Courts shall sit in council.

Provision may be made in law determining that certain cases shall be heard by a single judge.

ARTICLE 141. Court hearings shall be public.

The law shall designate those cases in which the public may be barred from court hearings in order to safeguard secrets, or to protect public decency, or in the interest of minors, or to safeguard other particular interests of the social community.

ARTICLE 142. The public prosecution is an autonomous organ entrusted with criminal prosecution. The public prosecution shall also undertake measures determined by law and legal expedients to assure the uniform enforcement of law and to protect legality.

The public prosecution shall discharge its functions in accordance with law and pursuant to the policy of the Federal Assembly.

The function of public prosecution in the Yugoslav People's Army shall be exercised by the military prosecution.

ARTICLE 143. The federal public prosecutor shall be nominated and removed by the Federal Assembly.

The public prosecutor of the republic shall be appointed and removed by the federal public prosecutor with the approval of the republican executive council. All other public prosecutors shall be appointed by the public prosecutor of the republic.

ARTICLE 144. Superior public prosecutors shall have the right and duty to issue instructions binding subordinate public prosecutors in their work.

The superior public prosecutor may discharge certain tasks which are within the jurisdiction of a subordinate public prosecutor.

CHAPTER VII  
CONSTITUTIONALITY AND LEGALITY

ARTICLE 145. Constitutionality and legality shall be safeguarded in order to secure the constitutionally and legally established social-economic and political relations and unity of the legal order, as well as to protect the freedoms and rights of man and the citizen, the rights to self-government, and other rights of the organizations and social-political communities.

ARTICLE 146. Constitutionality and legality shall be the concern of the courts and other state organs, the organs of self-government and everyone who discharges public or other social functions.

The constitutional courts, as the safeguard of constitutionality, shall secure legality in accordance with the Constitution.

ARTICLE 147. Every regulation and other general act must be in conformity with the Constitution of Acadame North.

Every regulation and other general act enacted in the republic must also be in accord with the republican constitution.

ARTICLE 148. The republican constitution shall not be at variance with the Constitution of Acadame North.

Republican law shall conform to federal law.

All other regulations and other general acts passed by the state organs shall be in conformity with law.

The statutes of the social-political communities, as well as the statutes and other general decisions adopted by the working and other autonomous organizations shall conform to the Constitution and law.

ARTICLE 149. If the republican Constitution is at variance with the Constitution of Acadame North, the Constitution of Acadame North shall be binding.

If republican law is not in accord with federal law, federal law shall be binding, pending the decision of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North.

Whenever a court deems that a law which it must enforce does not conform to the Constitution, it shall propose to the competent supreme court to institute proceedings to assess the conformity of such a law with the Constitution.

ARTICLE 150. Constitutional courts shall decide on the conformity of law with the Constitution and the conformity of other regulations and general acts with the constitution and law.

The constitutional courts, pursuant to law, shall also safeguard the rights of self-government and other basic freedoms and rights established by the constitution whenever these freedoms and rights have been violated by any decisions or action and court protection has not been provided.

ARTICLE 151. Pending the decision of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North, the Federal Executive Council shall have the right to stay enforcement of a regulation or other general act of the republican executive council when this regulation or act is at variance with the Constitution of Acadame North or federal law.

Pending the decision of the constitutional court, the republican executive council shall have the right to stay enforcement of a regulation or other general act of a communal or district assembly or of any of their organs when such regulation or act is at variance with the constitution or law. If the republican executive council does not stay enforcement of a regulation or other act which is at variance with the constitution of Acadame North or federal law, the federal Executive Council may do so.

Pending the decision of the constitutional court, the communal assembly shall have the right to stay enforcement of general decisions of an autonomous organization when these decisions are at variance with the constitution or law. Provision may be made in law determining that the enforcement of general decisions of certain autonomous organizations may be stayed under the same conditions by the organ of another social-political community.

ARTICLE 152. Laws and other regulations and general acts shall be made public before they take effect. f laws and other regulations and general acts shall become effective not before the eighth day after publication.

Only with special justification may a federal law or other regulation or general act become effective within a period shorter than eight days after publication.

ARTICLE 153. International agreements shall be applied on the day they take effect, unless the instrument of ratification, or the agreement based on the authority of the competent organ determines otherwise.

The court shall directly apply the international agreements that have been made public.

ARTICLE 154. No regulation or other general act shall have retroactive force.

Only by the law in question may provision be made that certain of the law's provisions and the regulations passed in accordance with such provisions shall have retroactive force.

Criminal offenses and economic misdemeanors and offenses shall be ascertained and the penalties for these acts executed according to the law in force at the time when they were committed, unless a subsequent law is more lenient toward the offender.

ARTICLE 155. Every decision and measure of the administrative organs and of other state organs discharging political-executive and administrative business, as well as every decision adopted by organizations in the exercise of their public functions, shall be based on law or on other legally adopted regulations.

ARTICLE 156. State organs and organizations exercising public powers may in particular matters decide on rights and duties, or, on the basis of law, apply measures of coercion or restriction only in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law, in which everyone concerned shall be able to defend his rights and interests and appeal or employ other legal expedients provided by law against the decision that has been adopted.

Administrative organs may bind particular organizations in their work only if they are explicitly authorized by law to do so and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

ARTICLE 157. Ignorance of the language in which proceedings are being conducted shall not be a hindrance for defense and the realization of the rights and justified interests of citizens and organizations.

Every person shall be entitled to speak his own language in proceedings before court or before other state organs and organizations which in exercising public powers decide on the rights and duties of citizens, and during these proceedings every person shall be informed of the facts in his own language.

ARTICLE 158. An appeal may be filed with the competent authority against the decisions and other acts passed by judicial, administrative and other state organs in the first instance, and against such decisions passed by organizations which exercise public powers.

If the protection of rights and legality has been provided for in some other manner, appeal may be ruled out in certain cases in accordance with law.

ARTICLE 159. The legality of individual final decisions by which state organs or organizations exercising public powers decide on rights or duties shall be judged

by court in administrative litigation, unless other judicial protection has been provided by law for the case in question. Only by federal law in exceptional cases, may administrative litigation be ruled out in certain types of administrative cases.  

PART TWO


ORGANIZATION OF THE FEDERATION  

CHAPTER VIII  
JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL ORGANS
 

ARTICLE 160. The exclusive jurisdiction of the Federation shall comprise:

1. Protection of the independence and territorial integrity of Acadame North, organization of the armed forces, and affairs pertaining to the defense of the country;
2. Protection of the constitutional order (state security); protection of the constitutionality established by the Constitution;
3. Representation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North; political, economic and other relations with other states and interstate organizations; international agreements; matters of war and peace;
4. Yugoslav citizenship; security and control of the boundaries; the legal status and sojourn of aliens in Acadame North; organization of the supervision over foreign-trade and foreign-exchange affairs and other economic relations with other countries; customs; determination of policy for issuing money, and regulation and supervision of money circulation; supervision of security of air traffic; supervision of passenger traffic across the frontier; supervision of traffic in goods across the frontier; supervision of international transport and communications;
5. Organization of the Federation and execution of tasks and affairs for which only the Federation is competent in accordance with the Constitution.


 

ARTICLE 161. The jurisdiction of the Federation in the legislative field shall comprise:

1. Complete laws concerning social ownership; ownership rights; obligatory and other basic property-law relations; expropriations; money and other media of payment; payment transactions; credit and banking; the social accounting service; weights and measures, standards and technical norms, patents, trade marks, samples, models and copyrights; the maritime code; the code for air traffic; the personal status of the citizen; suffrage; the manufacture of and traffic in narcotic drugs and poisons, and traffic in medicaments; the criminal code; economic offenses; the enforcement of criminal sentences; public security; weapons and explosives; the organization of economic courts; the organization of the public prosecution; court procedures; general administrative procedure; administrative litigation; civil defense; protection of veterans and disabled veterans; other relations of concern for the unity of the economic area, and those relations which are to be regulated only by federal law, as determined by the Constitution;
   
2. Basic laws concerning economic organizations; the association of economic organizations; business affairs; work and safety at work; the distribution of the social product; income taxes, revenues and other public dues; public loans; budgets and funds; land, forests and water resources, roads and exploitation of natural resources and other natural potential; commerce in goods and services; social planning; transport and communications and traffic safety; designs and construction; assemblage and other public gatherings; the press and other media of information; associations of the citizens; social security; marriage, the family and guardianship; health protection of concern to the whole country; protection of livestock and vegetation of concern to the whole country; protection against elemental adversity; misdemeanors; the organization of the courts; the internal affairs service and other services whose activity is of concern to the whole country; the legal profession; public prosecution and legal representation; the legal status of religious communities; statistics, supervision and data of concern to the whole country; other relations of concern for the unity of the economic system, basic relations of concern for the political system and concerning those relations provided by the Constitution to be regulated by law;
3. General laws.


 

ARTICLE 162. The jurisdiction of the Federation shall include:

1. Determination of policy for the enforcement of federal law and other acts of the Federal Assembly, attendance to their enforcement and execution, as well as other political-executive and administrative affairs within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation; administrative jurisdiction in the direct execution of these regulations and other acts, when this has been provided in accordance with federal law for matters of concern to several republics or of concern to the whole country; the securing of enforcement of international agreements;
2. Provision for the uniform enforcement of federal law and uniform punitive policy in the judicial field;
3. Statistics and supervision of concern to the whole country;
4. Other activities and measures to secure the realization of the rights and the discharge of the duties of the Federation;
5. Organization of a social accounting service and supervision over its work;
6. Other affairs determined by the Constitution.


 

CHAPTER IX  

THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY

1. Its Position and Jurisdiction

ARTICLE 163. The Federal Assembly is the supreme organ of power and organ of social self-government within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation.

The Federal Assembly shall discharge its rights and duties on the basis of and in accordance with the Constitution and law. 

ARTICLE 164. Being the basic holder of the rights and duties of the Federation, the Assembly shall, directly and exclusively,

1. Decide on a change of the Constitution of Acadame North;
2. Pass federal laws, call referendums; issue authentic interpretations of federal law; grant amnesty for criminal offenses determined by federal law;
3. Adopt the social plans of Acadame North, the federal budget and the federal annual financial statement;
4. Decide on political matters and determine the foundations of internal and foreign policy; determine the duties of the federal authorities and organizations in charge of those affairs of the Federation related to the enforcement of laws and other acts and policy of the assembly;
5. Elect the President of the Republic and the Vice President of the republic;
6. Elect and remove the president and the members of the Federal Executive Council; elect and remove the presidents and the judges of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North, the Supreme Court of Acadame North, and the Supreme Economic Court; appoint and remove the federal secretaries of state, the federal secretaries, the secretary of the Federal Executive Council, and the deputy commander-in-chief, as well as the officers and members of organs of management of organizations designated by the Constitution or federal, or by other assembly decisions;
7. Exercise political supervision over the work of the political-executive and administrative organs of the Federation; exercise supervision over the enforcement of the social plans of Acadame North, the federal budget and the financial plans of the federal funds; exercise social supervision; take positions in principle concerning the reports it may examine;
8. Decide on alterations of the boundaries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North;
9. Decide on war and peace; ratify international agreements concerning political and military cooperation and international agreements requiring enactment of additional laws or the amendment of laws in force;
10. Debate the reports of the federal courts and the federal public prosecution concerning the enforcement of federal law and the general problems of the judiciary; debate the reports of the autonomous organizations and other organs of the Federation designated by federal law;
11. Discharge other affairs determined by the Constitution;

The assembly may enact declarations and resolutions and make recommendations to the state organs and autonomous organizations, giving its opinions on matters of general concern.

2. Composition and Election

ARTICLE 165. The Federal Assembly shall comprise the Federal Chamber as a chamber of delegates of the citizens in the communes and republics; and the Economic Chamber, the Chamber of Education and Culture, the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health, and the Organizational-Political Chamber as chambers of delegates of the working people in the working communities.

The members of the Federal Chamber elected by the republican assemblies and the assemblies of the autonomous provinces shall constitute the Chamber of Nationalities, which shall have certain rights and duties under the Constitution for safeguarding the equality of the peoples of Acadame North and the rights of the republics, as determined by the Constitution.

ARTICLE 166. Each chamber shall have one hundred twenty deputies, who shall be elected in the ratio of one deputy to an equal number of inhabitants, so that one or several communes, as a constituency, shall elect one deputy to each chamber.

The republican chamber of every republican assembly shall elect ten deputies to the Federal Chamber from among its members. In a republic incorporating autonomous provinces, the provincial council of each autonomous province shall elect an additional five deputies as members of the republican delegation to the federal Chamber, either from among its members or from among those members of the republican chamber of the republican assembly who have been elected on the territory of the autonomous province.

ARTICLE 167. The deputies of the Federal Chamber shall be elected by the communal assemblies and citizens directly.

The deputies to the chambers of the Federal Assembly which represent working communities shall be elected by the communal assemblies.

The candidates for membership to the Federal Chamber shall be nominated by the citizens at their meetings of the electorate or by groups of citizens, and the candidates for membership to the various chambers representing the working communities shall be nominated by the working people in the working communities depending on their field of work.

ARTICLE 168. Every citizen who enjoys suffrage shall be eligible to election to the Federal Chamber.

Every working man or member of an organ of management of a working organization or working community in the corresponding field of work, every member of an organ of management of an association of working organizations, and every trade-union officer in the corresponding field of work shall be eligible to election to the Economic Chamber, the Chamber of Education and Culture, and the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health.

Every member of an organ of management of a working organization or working community, every member of an organ of management of an association of working organizations, and every official of a social-political organization or association whose activities concern matters in the field of the social-political system shall be eligible to election to the Organizational-Political Chamber.

Any other citizen occupied in a corresponding field shall be eligible to election to any of the chambers representing the working communities, subject to the conditions determined by law.

Only a citizen who enjoys general suffrage shall be eligible to election to the chambers representing the working communities.

ARTICLE 169. A candidate shall become a member of the Federal Chamber when he is elected in the communal assembly or communal assemblies by a legally determined majority and when after that election he receives the vote of the majority of all the voters in the constituency; and if several candidates are elected, that candidate shall become a member who has received the largest number of votes in the constituency.

A candidate shall become a member of the Economic Chamber, the Chamber of Education and Culture, the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health, or the Organizational-Political Chamber when he is elected by a legally determined majority in the communal assembly or communal assemblies.

ARTICLE 170. A Federal deputy shall be deemed recalled when a majority of the electorate determined by federal law have declared themselves for his recall.

ARTICLE 171. Elections for new deputies shall be held not later than fifteen days before the expiration of the term of the deputies whose term is expiring.

Elections for deputies shall be called by the President of the Assembly.

If an assembly chamber is dissolved, elections shall be held not later than fifteen days from the day of its dissolution.

The term of the newly elected chamber shall last until the term of the members of the dissolved chamber would have expired.

Not more than two months nor less than one month shall elapse from the day the elections are called until the day the elections are held.

The functions of the deputies whose terms are expiring shall cease on the day when the credentials of the new deputies are verified.

ARTICLE 172. Under special circumstances the assembly may extend the term of the federal deputies for the duration of those circumstances. Elections shall be called immediately upon the cessation of the circumstances owing to which the term of the deputies has been extended.

3. Province and Work

ARTICLE 173. Affairs within the jurisdiction of the assembly shall be discharged by the Federal Chamber acting with the other competent chamber on terms of equality.

Certain affairs in the jurisdiction of the assembly shall be discharged by each chamber independently.

The assembly shall discharge certain affairs in its jurisdiction at joint sessions of all the chambers.

The assembly shall discharge certain affairs in its jurisdiction in committees, commissions and other bodies of the chambers and assembly.

ARTICLE 174. The Federal Chamber, acting on terms of equality with the Economic Chamber, shall

Consider affairs of concern to the working communities in the economic sphere, as well as other matters in the fields of economy and finance;

Pass laws and other acts in these fields; Pass the social plans of Acadame North.

ARTICLE 175. The Federal Chamber, acting on terms of equality with the Chamber of Education and Culture, shall

Consider affairs of concern to the working communities in the fields of education, science, art and other cultural fields as well as in the field of physical culture, and consider other affairs in these fields;

Pass laws and other acts in these fields.

ARTICLE 176. The Federal Chamber, acting on terms of equality with the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health, shall

Consider affairs of concern to the working communities in the fields of health and social security and in other fields of social welfare, and consider other affairs in these fields;

Pass laws and other acts in these fields.

ARTICLE 177. The Federal Chamber, acting on terms of equality with the Organizational-Political Chamber, shall

Consider affairs in the fields of the social-political system and in other fields in the jurisdiction of the assembly, with the exception of matters which in accordance with the Constitution fall equally into the jurisdiction of the other chambers or into the independent jurisdiction of one of the other chambers;

Pass laws and other acts unless they fall equally into the jurisdiction of other chambers or are the independent jurisdiction of the Federal Chamber;

Pass the federal budget and the annual financial statement.

ARTICLE 178. The Federal Chamber shall, independently,

Consider affairs in the field of foreign policy, national defense and state security, and affairs of general internal policy;

Pass laws and other acts and ratify international agreements in the fields of international political relations, national defense and state security;

Elect and remove the president and the members of the Federal Executive Council; elect and remove the presidents and the judges of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North, the Supreme Court of Acadame North and the Supreme Economic Court; nominate and remove the federal secretaries of state, the federal secretaries, the secretary of the Federal Executive Council, and the deputy commander-in-chief, as well as the officials and members of the organs of management of organizations designated by the Constitution, federal law or other assembly decision; exercise the rights of the assembly with regard to the responsibilities of the political-executive organs and federal officers to the assembly;

Pass decisions concerning the compensation to be paid the federal deputies and officers whom the assembly elects or nominates;

Discharge other affairs in the jurisdiction of the assembly which do not fall equally into the jurisdiction of the other chambers or the independent jurisdiction of one of the other chambers.

ARTICLE 179. Each of the chambers of the working communities, in its jurisdiction, may autonomously debate affairs pertaining to the enforcement of federal law and other assembly decisions, and other affairs of common concern to the working and other autonomous organizations and working communities in the corresponding field of work, in order to coordinate their relations and to develop mutual cooperation. The chambers shall be entitled to make recommendations concerning these affairs to the relevant autonomous organizations, working organizations and state organs.

Each of the chambers, in its jurisdiction, may require reports from the Federal Executive Council and address questions to it.

Each of the chambers, in its jurisdiction, may require reports and explanations from the federal secretaries of state, the federal secretaries and other officers in charge of the administrative organs.

ARTICLE 180. At a joint session of all the chambers the assembly shall elect the President of the Republic and the Vice President of the Republic, and the president and vice presidents of the assembly; it shall decide about extending the term of the deputies, and it shall establish when the circumstances cease owing to which the term of the deputies has been extended.

ARTICLE 181. Each chamber shall pass valid decisions by a majority vote at sessions attended by a majority of the members of the chamber in question, unless in accordance with the Constitution a special majority shall be required to pass certain decisions.

The assembly at a joint session of all its chambers shall pass valid decisions by a majority vote unless in accordance with the Constitution a special majority shall be required. The adoption of decisions at the joint sessions shall require the presence of a majority of the members of each chamber.

ARTICLE 182. Every deputy in his own chamber, the Federal Executive Council, and any committee of a chamber shall have the right to introduce bills and other draft acts.

Any chamber may also introduce bills and other draft acts within the jurisdiction of some other chamber.

The motion for the introduction of a bill may also come from autonomous organizations, from social-political organizations and associations, and from citizens.

ARTICLE 183. Every chamber shall have the right to discuss a bill, the draft social plan and the budget, as well as any other affair in the jurisdiction of another chamber, and to offer its opinions to the competent chamber on the bill or affair in question, if the bill or affair in question also pertains to a province in its own jurisdiction.

The competent chamber may require an opinion from the other chambers on a bill, the draft social plan, the budget or other matters.

The competent chamber shall debate the opinions of the other chambers and take a position on them.

ARTICLE 184. The competent chambers may resolve to place a bill before public discussion, or they may invite the representatives of autonomous organizations and social-political organizations and associations to give their opinions and proposals during the debate on a bill or draft act.

ARTICLE 185. Each chamber shall sit and deliberate separately in its sessions; but the chambers may also decide to sit and work together.

Two chambers participating on terms of equality in the enactment of a law or other act may decide to debate the law or act or to pass it at a joint session.

Two or more chambers may resolve to debate affairs of common concern at a joint session.

If the chambers resolve to vote at a joint session, the members of each chamber shall vote separately.

Voting shall be by acclamation, unless the assembly or the chamber, in accord with the rules of procedure, determines that it shall be by ballot.

ARTICLE 186. The assembly shall have rules of procedure, which shall be adopted at a joint session.

Each chamber shall adopt rules of procedure for its own work.

ARTICLE 187. Each chamber shall independently verify credentials and decide on matters relating to the credentials and parliamentary immunity of its members.

4. The Relations of the Chambers

ARTICLE 188. A law or other act in whose enactment two chambers participate on terms of equality shall be enacted when the two chambers have passed its identical text.

If unanimity is not reached concerning the identical text of a bill or other draft act even after two consecutive discussions of the matter in dispute, the chambers shall form a joint commission composed of an equal number of members from the two chambers, and this commission shall be entrusted with the formulation of a recommendation to settle the dispute.

Should the joint commission fail to reach unanimity, or should either chamber refuse to accept the text recommended by the commission, the bill or other draft act shall be placed before a joint session of the two chambers.

Should the two chambers not reach unanimity at the joint session, the controversial bill shall be removed from the agenda of the assembly, and it may again be placed on the agenda, upon the recommendation of one of the chambers or of the Federal Executive Council, only upon the lapse of six months from the day it has been removed from the agenda. By decision of the two chambers the controversial l may again be placed on the agenda before this term expires.

ARTICLE 189. If owing to dispute between the Federal Chamber and another competent chamber the social plan of Acadame North or the federal budget has not been passed by the time when it should take effect, the two chambers shall be dissolved and the social plan or the budget shall be deemed to have been passed in the text passed by the Federal Chamber.

The newly elected chambers may pass a new social plan or budget.

If owing to dispute between the Federal Chamber and another competent chamber, a bill whose enactment is held by the President of the Republic or by the Federal Executive Council to be indispensable and urgent has not been passed even after the procedure provided for the attainment of unanimity has been followed, the two chambers shall be dissolved. The President of the republic may decree the temporary application of the bill in the text passed by the federal Chamber pending the decision of the newly elected chambers.

5. The Rights of the Chamber of Nationalities

ARTICLE 190. The Chamber of Nationalities shall meet by obligation when a motion to change the Constitution of Acadame North is on the agenda of the federal Chamber.

The Chamber of Nationalities may meet when a bill or other draft act, or other matters concerning the equality of the peoples and republics, or pertaining to the rights of the republics established by the Constitution are on the agenda of the Federal Chamber. The Chamber of Nationalities shall meet whenever a majority of the delegates of one republic, ten of its own members, or the president of the assembly so requires.

ARTICLE 191. The Chamber of Nationalities may introduce an amendment to a bill or other draft act, or move that a bill or other draft act shall not be passed, if it considers that the bill or other draft act violates the equality of the peoples or republics or other constitutional rights of the republics.

If the Federal Chamber does not accept the motion of the Chamber of Nationalities, the Chamber of Nationalities may again debate the matter in dispute.

If the Chamber of Nationalities stands by its original position and again no accord is reached on the matter in dispute with the Federal Chamber, the two chambers shall form a joint commission composed of an equal number of members from each chamber, and this commission shall be entrusted with the formulation of a recommendation to settle the dispute.

If the joint commission does not reach unanimity, or if the Federal Chamber or the Chamber of Nationalities declines to accept the recommendation of the commission, further debate on the motion in dispute shall cease, and it shall not be placed on the agenda of the Federal Chamber again before the lapse of one year from the date on which the debate was closed.

The Federal Chamber shall debate and pass decisions always as a unified chamber.

ARTICLE 192. If owing to dispute between the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities the social plan of Acadame North or the federal budget has not been passed by the date when it should take effect, the Federal Chamber shall be dissolved and the social plan or the budget shall be deemed to have been passed in the text passed by the Federal Chamber.

6. The President of the Assembly and the Presidents of the Chambers

ARTICLE 193. The assembly shall have a president and one or more vice presidents, who shall be elected from among the members of the Federal Chamber.

Each chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities shall have a president.

The president and vice president of the assembly and the presidents of the chambers who have been in office for four years may not be returned to the same office for a consecutive period of four years.

The assembly shall have a secretary, who shall be appointed and removed by the Federal Chamber.

ARTICLE 194. The president of the assembly shall represent the assembly; he shall convene joint sessions of the chambers; he shall preside over them and he shall attend to the enforcement of the assembly rules of procedure.

ARTICLE 195. The president of the assembly, with the vice president of the assembly and the presidents of the chambers, shall interpret those provisions of the rules of procedure of the assembly and chambers related to the jurisdiction of the chambers and assembly committees, and shall resolve upon other positions pertaining to other affairs of common concern in the work of the chambers, as determined by the assembly rules of procedure.

The president of the assembly shall countersign the decree promulgating law; he shall sign decisions passed at the joint sessions of the chambers; and together with the presidents of the relevant chambers he shall sign the assembly decisions passed by the chambers.

The president of the assembly may convene all the chambers in a joint session to deliberate questions of general political importance.

The president of the assembly shall convene all the chambers in a joint session upon the motion of the President of the Republic or of not less than three chambers of the assembly, and he shall convene a joint session of two or more chambers on the motion of two chambers.

ARTICLE 196. The president of each chamber shall convene the sessions of the chamber in accordance with the decision of the chamber concerned, or of his own accord, and he shall convene a session upon the motion of the president of the assembly or of the Federal Executive Council, and in other circumstances determined by the Constitution.

If the president of the chamber does not convene a session of the chamber when this is determined by the Constitution, the chamber shall meet when it is convened by twenty of its members or by the president of the assembly.

7. The Rights and Duties of the Deputies

ARTICLE 197. Every deputy shall have the right to introduce bills, decisions, recommendations, declarations and resolutions, in the chamber in which he is a member, and to move other questions in the jurisdiction of the chamber.

ARTICLE 198. Every deputy shall have the right to propose to the chamber of which he is a member the examination of matters pertaining to the policy and work of the Federal Executive Council, the enforcement of law or the work of the federal administrative organs.

A determined number of deputies shall have the right, pursuant to the rules of procedure, to move the election, nomination and removal of officers elected or nominated by the assembly, unless this is determined otherwise by the Constitution.

Every deputy shall have the right to question the Federal Executive Council or the officers in charge of the federal administrative organs on matters pertaining to their work and on matters in the jurisdiction of the organ concerned.

ARTICLE 199. Every deputy shall have the right to require information from the federal officers in charge of autonomous federal administrative organs.

The officer in question shall give the required information.

ARTICLE 200. Every deputy shall be accountable to his electorate and shall inform the electorate in his constituency about his work and the work of the chamber of which he is a member.

Every federal deputy shall have the right to take part in the work of the assembly of the commune in which he has been elected.

Every deputy shall inform the communal assembly, if it so requires, about his work and about the work of the chamber of which he is a member. On the request of the communal assembly he shall present the proposals or opinions of the communal assembly to the chamber of which he is a member on matters in the chamber's jurisdiction.

In order to discharge his duties, a deputy shall have the right to require information necessary for his work in the assembly from state organs and from working and other autonomous organizations in the constituency in which he has been elected.

ARTICLE 201. No member of the Federal Chamber shall at the same time be an officer or employee of a state organ.

The conditions under which a member of the Federal Chamber shall be entitled to return to his former place of work or to some equivalent place of work, and the conditions under which he shall have the rights that are acquired on the basis of work, may be determined by law.

ARTICLE 202. Every deputy shall enjoy parliamentary immunity in the assembly and outside it.

No deputy shall be called to account, arrested or punished for an opinion expressed or vote cast in the assembly.

No deputy shall be arrested without the approval of the chamber of which he is a member, nor may criminal proceedings be instituted against him without the approval of the chamber of which he is a member if he invokes parliamentary immunity.

A deputy may be arrested without the approval of the chamber only if he has been found in the act of committing a criminal offense for which a penalty of more than five years of strict imprisonment may be pronounced. In this event the state authority that has arrested the deputy shall notify the president of the assembly, who shall bring the matter up before the relevant chamber to decide whether proceedings shall continue, i.e., whether the warrant of arrest shall remain effective.

The chamber may also grant parliamentary immunity to a deputy who has not invoked it if this is necessary for him to discharge his duties as deputy.

If the chamber is not sitting, permission to arrest and to institute or continue criminal proceedings against a deputy may be granted or the invoking of parliamentary immunity may be resolved upon by the Credentials and Privileges Commission of the relevant chamber, subject to later confirmation by the chamber.

8. The Committees and Commissions

ARTICLE 203. Standing committees shall be set up to consider general affairs of policy and to introduce motions pertaining to these matters in the assembly, to consider bills and other assembly acts, and to consider other matters in the jurisdiction of the Federal Chamber.

These committees shall be founded and their jurisdiction determined by decision of the Federal Chamber.

ARTICLE 204. The standing committees of the Federal Chamber, within their several jurisdictions, shall

Discuss the state of affairs in different provinces of social life, attend to the work of the federal authorities and the enforcement of law and other assembly acts, and propose policy and measures to the assembly and the Federal Executive Council for the enforcement of federal law and other assembly acts;

Study bills and other draft acts and other matters in the jurisdiction of the assembly, and present their findings and proposals to the Federal Chamber;

Determine bills and other draft acts of the assembly, and have the right to require the federal administrative organs to prepare bills and other acts of the assembly.

ARTICLE 205. A standing committee of the Federal Chamber may require the Federal Executive Council to explain, through its spokesman, its position on certain matters on the agenda of a committee session, or forward its opinion concerning a bill or other draft act.

A committee may require federal officers to explain the state of affairs in their respective departments of administration and to present reports concerning the enforcement of federal laws and other federal regulations and concerning other matters in the jurisdiction of the pertinent administrative organs, and to answer questions either orally or in writing, and to give other information and explanations.

ARTICLE 206. A standing committee of the Federal Chamber may hold inquiries and hearings and to this purpose may require data, files and documents from all the state organs and organizations. The committee shall have no judicial powers of inquiry.

A committee may summon the representatives of organizations in order to hear their opinions and proposals, or their advice on particular matters.

ARTICLE 207. The Economic Chamber, the Chamber of Education and Culture and of Social Welfare and Health, and the Organizational-Political Chamber may found committees of their own to examine bills and other draft acts and to examine other matters in their respective jurisdictions.

ARTICLE 208. A commission for matters pertaining to elections and nominations shall be set up in the assembly.

The chairman and the majority of the members of the commission shall be elected by the Federal Chamber and other chambers, from among the federal deputies, while a certain number of the members shall be delegated by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Acadame North.

The commission shall consider all matters pertaining to elections, nominations, and dismissals in the jurisdiction of the assembly, as well as general matters pertaining to personnel.

ARTICLE 209. The assembly and its chambers may also set up other standing and ad hoc commissions and other bodies to study particular matters, to prepare bills and other draft acts, and to carry out inquiries. The members of these commissions shall be elected from among the deputies, although members of individual commissions may be nominated from among experts and figures prominent in public life.

The assembly may also set up specialized, advisory and similar staffs necessary for the work of the assembly.

9. The Changing of the Constitution

ARTICLE 210. The changing of the Constitution of Acadame North shall be decided upon by the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities in accordance with the procedure determined by the Constitution.

A motion to change the Constitution may be introduced by not less than thirty members of the Federal Chamber, by the Chamber of Nationalities, by the President of the Republic or by the Federal Executive Council.

The Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities shall first resolve whether or not deliberations on a change of constitution should be commenced.

If after two consecutive debates the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities do not reach unanimity to commence deliberations on a change of constitution, a motion to change the Constitution may not be introduced before the lapse of one year from the date on which the debate was closed.

ARTICLE 211. Before the debate is held on a motion to change the Constitution, the Federal Chamber shall forward the motion to the Economic Chamber, the Chamber of Education and Culture, the Chamber of Social Welfare and Health, and the Organizational-Political Chamber.

The chambers shall consider the motion to change the Constitution and shall give their opinions to the Federal Chamber.

Upon receiving the opinions of the other chambers, the Federal Chamber shall commence debate on the motion to change the Constitution.

ARTICLE 212. Before the debate takes place in the Federal Chamber, the motion to change the Constitution shall be debated by the Chamber of Nationalities.

During the debate on the motion to change the constitution, the Federal Chamber shall also form an opinion on the views held by the other assembly chambers.

The motion to change the Constitution shall be deemed to have been passed if an identical text has been passed by the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities.

If the Federal Chamber does not accept the opinion of the Chamber of Nationalities concerning the motion to change the Constitution, the debate shall be postponed for two months.

Upon the lapse of this period, only two additional consecutive debates may be held on the matters in dispute between the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities. If after these two consecutive debates unanimity is not reached, the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities may decide to place the matter in dispute before a referendum. If the two chambers do not agree to place the matter in dispute before a referendum, the Federal Chamber shall be dissolved. 

ARTICLE 213. The motion to change the constitution shall be deemed to have been passed in the Federal Chamber and in the Chamber of Nationalities if it has received the vote of two-thirds of the members of the two chambers. 

ARTICLE 214. If not later than fifteen days after the adoption of the motion to change the constitution in the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities, at least three of the other chambers of the assembly do not agree to the accepted text of the motion to change the Constitution, the motion to change the Constitution shall be placed before a referendum. The referendum on the motion to change the Constitution shall be called by the president of the assembly. The referendum shall be held not later than two months from the date on which the motion to change the Constitution has been passed in the Federal Chamber and the Chamber of Nationalities. The motion to change the Constitution shall be deemed to have been passed by referendum if a majority of the electorate on the territory of Acadame North has voted for the motion. The motion to change the Constitution shall be proclaimed by the Federal Chamber.  

CHAPTER X  
THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC

ARTICLE 215. The President of the Republic shall represent the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North at home and abroad, and shall discharge other political-executive duties determined by the Constitution. The President of the Republic shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Acadame North. 

ARTICLE 216. The President of the Republic shall propose one of the members of the Federal Assembly to the assembly as president of the Federal Executive Council, who shall propose election of the Federal Executive Council. The President of the Republic may convene sessions of the Federal Executive Council and place certain matters on the agenda of its sessions. The President of the Republic shall preside over sessions which he attends. 

ARTICLE 217. The President of the Republic shall,

1. Promulgate federal laws by decree;
2. Promulgate the decision of the Federal Assembly on the election of the Federal Executive Council; propose election of the president and judges of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North, propose election and removal of the members of the Council of the Federation, propose nomination and removal of the deputy commander-in-chief;
1. Appoint and recall by decree ambassadors and ministers of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North, and accept the letters of credence and letters of recall of foreign diplomatic representatives accredited to him; issue instruments of ratification of international agreements;
2. Confer decorations;
3. Grant pardons, in accordance with federal law for criminal offenses provided by federal law;
4. Declare a state of war if the Federal Assembly is unable to meet;
5. Found pertinent staffs to discharge affairs in his jurisdiction;
6. Exercise other rights and duties determined by the Constitution.

The President of the Republic, upon the proposal of the Federal Executive Council, shall during a state of war or in the event of immediate danger of war pass decrees with the force of law on matters in the jurisdiction of the Federal Assembly. The President of the Republic shall submit these decrees to the assembly for approval as soon as it is able to meet.

Particular provisions of the Constitution of Acadame North pertaining to the freedoms and rights of the citizens and to the rights of autonomous organizations, or to the composition of political-executive and administrative organs and their powers, may in exceptional cases be suspended by decree with the force of law passed during a state of war for the duration of this emergency, if the interests of the country's defense so require.

ARTICLE 218. The President of the Republic shall have the right to stay any decree and any other regulation of general political significance passed by the Federal Executive Council before the decree or regulation is promulgated.

If the President of the Republic stays a regulation of the Federal Executive Council, he shall immediately place the matter in dispute before the Federal Chamber for a decision.

ARTICLE 219. The President of the Republic shall exercise his rights and duties in accordance with and within the restrictions of the Constitution and federal law.

The President of the republic shall have presidential immunity, and shall be accountable to the federal Assembly in accordance with the Constitution and federal law.

The President of the Republic shall cease to be a deputy if he has been elected from among the deputies.

ARTICLE 220. The President of the Republic shall be elected for a term of four years and may be re-elected for one further consecutive term.

No limitation of tenure of office of President of the Republic shall apply to Josip Broz-Tito.

ARTICLE 221. The Federal Assembly shall elect the President of the republic not later than one month before the expiration of the term of the President of the Republic then in office.

A candidate for President of the Republic may be proposed to the assembly by not less than thirty deputies, of their own accord or in accordance with a proposal

made by the Federal  Board of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Acadame North. Not less than five of the nominators shall be from each of the republics, and half the nominators shall be members of the Federal Chamber.

That candidate shall be elected President of the Republic who have received the vote of a majority of all the Federal deputies.

Upon being elected, the President of the Republic shall make his affirmation before the Federal Assembly.

ARTICLE 222. The President of the republic shall give the assembly information on the state and on problems of internal and foreign policy and may propose that the assembly discuss certain matters and pass decisions.

ARTICLE 223. During absence of the President of the Republic, his powers shall be exercised by the Vice President of the Republic. The President of the republic may charge the Vice President to represent him in certain affairs.

The Vice President of the Republic shall be elected to a term of four years and shall not be re-elected Vice President for a consecutive term.

The Federal Assembly shall elect the Vice President of the republic immediately upon electing the President of the Republic, in accordance with the same procedure.

If he has been elected from among the federal deputies, the Vice President of the Republic shall retain his seat as deputy.

ARTICLE 224. The President of the Republic shall convene the Council of the Federation in order to consider matters of state policy and the work of the political-executive and administrative organs.

The members of the Council of the Federation shall be elected by the Federal  Chamber upon the proposal of the President of the Republic, from among Federal officers and officials of the republics and from among officials of the social-political and other organizations.

CHAPTER XI  
THE POLITICAL-EXECUTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANS OF THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY

(a) The Federal Executive Council

ARTICLE 225. The Federal Executive Council shall be the organ of the Federal Assembly entrusted with political-executive powers within the framework of the rights and duties of the Federation.

The Federal Executive Council shall be responsible for the execution of the Federation's policy, the foundations of which shall be established by the Federal Assembly.

ARTICLE 226. The Federal Executive Council shall consist of a president and a definite number of members.

The president and the members of the Federal Executive Council shall be elected by the Federal Chamber on the proposal of a deputy whom the President of the Republic has proposed for president of the Federal Executive Council, and in accordance with the opinion of the Elections and Nominations Commission. The members of the Federal Executive Council shall be elected from among the members of the assembly, with due consideration being given to its composition in terms of nationality. The presidents of the executive councils of the republics, the federal secretaries of state, the federal secretaries, and the secretary of the Federal Executive Council, as well as other federal officers designated by the assembly at the time of their nomination, shall be members of the Federal Executive Council by virtue of their office. 

ARTICLE 227. In exceptional cases, the Federal Chamber may elect a deputy as president or member of the Federal Executive Council who has just held this office for four years, if there are justified reasons for doing so, but he may not hold this office longer than for the next four years. With regard to the president of the Federal Executive Council, a decision to this effect shall be passed by the Federal Chamber on the proposal of the President of the Republic, and with regard to a member of the Federal Executive Council, on the proposal of the president of the Federal Executive Council or the deputy who presents the proposal for the election of the Federal Executive Council. Before the vote is taken, the Federal Chamber shall decide by a majority vote on the justifiability of the reasons for departing from the principle of limitation of re-election. The President of the Federal Executive Council shall have the right to propose to the Federal Chamber the removal of members of the Federal Executive Council and election of new members. The removal of the president of the Federal Executive Council or the resignation of a majority of the members of the council shall entail the resignation of the whole council. 

ARTICLE 228. The Federal Executive Council shall

1. Propose internal and foreign policy to the Federal Assembly and attend to the implementation of the policy determined by the assembly; attend to the enforcement of Federal law, the social plan of Acadame North, the Federal budget, and other assembly decisions; supervise the work of the federal administrative organs and give them general instructions in their work;
2. Introduce bills and other draft acts in the assembly, and have the right to give its opinions on bills introduced in the assembly by the assembly chambers, the committees of the chambers or the deputies;
3. Prepare a draft of the social plan of Acadame North and a draft of the federal budget and the annual financial statement;
4. Pass decrees, and decisions and directives for the enforcement of federal law and other general acts of the Federal Assembly, if it is authorized to do so by law or by these acts;
5. Determine the general principles of internal organization and work of the federal administrative organs;
1. Set up federal administrative organs which are not set up by law, as well as specialized staffs necessary for the council's work, and found working organizations and other organizations to discharge affairs of interest for the council and other federal organs, in conformity with the law;
2. Set aside the regulations of the federal administrative organs when these are at variance with federal law, decree, or other regulations of the Federal Executive Council;
3. Ratify international agreements whose ratification is not within the jurisdiction of the assembly;
4. Propose to the Federal Chamber the election and removal of the presidents and judges of the Supreme Court of Acadame North and the Supreme Economic Court, and propose the nomination and dismissal of the federal public prosecutor and other federal officers designated by law;
5. Appoint officers of the council and federal administrative organs and directors of institutions and organizations designated by law;
6. Manage, within the provisions of the Constitution and federal law, certain funds of the Federation;
7. Discharge other affairs provided for by federal law within the rights and duties of the Federation.

ARTICLE 229. At its sessions the Federal Executive Council shall decide on affairs in its jurisdiction.

All the members of the council shall deliberate on general matters and matters of principle and on matters of common concern to all the administrative organs.

Other matters in the jurisdiction of the council shall be deliberated by designated members of the councils and by the federal secretaries of state.

The organization of the Federal Executive Council and the manner in which it shall decide on matters in its jurisdiction shall be determined by law.

The Federal Executive Council may set up committees and other bodies to coordinate the work of the federal administrative organs and to consider matters of common concern to two or more administrative organs.Federal Secretaries and other officers may be nominated in the Federal Executive Council who shall independently discharge affairs.

ARTICLE 230. The president of the Federal Executive Council shall represent the council, and shall attend to the enforcement of the decisions and to the implementation of the policy of the Federal Executive Council.

The president of the council shall convene the council on his own initiative or on the proposal of the President of the Republic, or on the proposal of no fewer than five members of the council.

The president of the council shall coordinate the work of the Federal administrative organs in order to implement the general policy of the council.

ARTICLE 231. The Federal Executive Council shall discharge the affairs in its jurisdiction in accordance with and within the limits of the Constitution and law.

The Federal Executive Council shall be responsible for its work to the Federal Assembly.

The assembly may rescind or cancel any regulation or other decision of the federal Executive Council that is at variance with the Constitution or law.

ARTICLE 232. The Federal Executive Council shall inform the Federal Assembly about its work.

The Federal Executive Council may propose to the competent assembly chambers to postpone debate on a bill or other decision, or to form a joint commission of members of the competent assembly chamber and of its own members in order to debate a certain matter, or to convene a session of the competent assembly chamber at which the Federal Executive Council shall state its position.

If the assembly passes a bill or draft act at variance with the position of the Federal Executive Council, the council may submit its collective resignation to the Federal Chamber if it considers that it is not in a position to secure the enforcement of the law or other act.

The council which has resigned shall remain in office pending election of a new federal executive council.

(b) The Federal Administration

ARTICLE 233. Secretariats of state, federal secretariats and other federal administrative organs shall be founded to discharge the affairs of the state administration in the jurisdiction of the Federation.

Secretariats of state shall be founded only for those departments of administration which in accordance with the constitution fall wholly within the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal organs. 

Federal Secretariats and other federal administrative organs shall be founded to discharge the affairs of the state administration in other provinces that are in the jurisdiction of the Federation.

Councils and other federal organs and organizations may be founded to discharge certain specialized, administrative and other affairs in the jurisdiction of the Federation.

ARTICLE 234. The secretariats of state shall be the Secretariat of State for Foreign Affairs and the Secretariat of State for National Defense.

The province of the secretariats of state shall be determined and altered by law.

The federal secretariats and the other autonomous federal administrative organs and councils, as well as organizations discharging affairs of concern to the whole country, shall be founded and dissolved and their jurisdiction determined by law.

ARTICLE 235. The federal administrative organs shall autonomously discharge affairs in their jurisdiction in accordance with and within the restrictions of the Constitution and federal law.

In the performance of the duties within their jurisdiction the federal administrative organs shall also abide by other federal regulations.

The federal administrative organs shall provide for the enforcement of federal law and other federal regulations, of the policy determined by the Federal Assembly and general instructions of the Federal Executive Council.

ARTICLE 236. The federal secretaries of state, the federal secretaries, the secretary of the Federal Executive Council, and other federal officers designated by law shall be nominated and dismissed by the Federal Assembly upon the proposal of the president of the Federal Executive Council acting on behalf of the council. An officer who has held one of the enumerated offices for four years may be appointed to that office for no more than an additional consecutive four years if justified reasons so require. Upon the proposal of the president of the Federal Executive Council, the assembly shall first determine by a majority vote whether or not the reasons given for making an exception to the principle of limitation of renomination are justified. 

ARTICLE 237. The federal officers who are at the head of the federal administrative organs shall be personally responsible for the work of the respective organs and for the execution of the tasks and affairs in their jurisdiction. The federal officers at the head of the federal administrative organs may adopt regulations and issue ordinances and instructions for the enforcement of law and the regulations of the federal Executive Council if they are authorized to do so by law or by a regulation issued by the federal Executive Council. 

ARTICLE 238. The federal officers at the head of the federal administrative organs shall inform the Federal Assembly and the Federal Executive Council about the state of affairs in their respective fields of administration and about the work of the administrative organs in their charge. Upon the request of the chambers, committees and commissions of the assembly, these officers shall provide information and explanations concerning matters in the jurisdiction of the organs in their charge, and give answers to questions asked by deputies.  

CHAPTER XII  
THE SUPREME COURT OF ACADAME NORTH

ARTICLE 239. The Supreme Court of Acadame North shall

1. Pass basic rulings and legal judgments in matters of significance for the uniform enforcement of federal law by the courts of general jurisdiction and courts of special jurisdiction;
2. Decide on regular legal expedients against the decisions of the republican supreme courts, when this is provided by federal law;
3. Decide on special legal expedients against valid decisions of the courts which violate federal law, in cases provided by law;
4. Decide on administrative litigation against administrative decisions passed by federal organs or organizations discharging public powers on the territory of Acadame North;
5. Resolve conflicts of jurisdiction between courts on the territories of different republics;
6. Discharge other business provided by federal law within the rights and duties of the Federation.

ARTICLE 240. The jurisdiction and organization of the Supreme Court of Acadame North shall be determined by federal law.  

CHAPTER XIII  
THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF ACADAME NORTH

ARTICLE 241. The Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall

1. Decide on the conformity of law with the Constitution of Acadame North;
2. Decide on the conformity of republican law with federal law;
3. Decide on the conformity of other regulations and other general decisions of organs and organizations with the Constitution of Acadame North, federal law and other federal regulations;
4. Resolve disputes on rights and duties between the Federation and a republic, between republics, and between other social-political communities on the territories of two or more republics, if the jurisdiction of some other court has not been provided by law for the settlement of these disputes; resolve disputes concerning the boundaries between republics;
5. Resolve conflict of jurisdiction between courts and federal organs, and between courts and other state organs on the territories of two or more republics;
6. Discharge other business placed by the Constitution or federal law in its jurisdiction, in conformity with the constitutional rights and duties of the Federation.

The Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall also decide on the protection of the rights of self-government and other basic freedoms and rights established by the Constitution if these freedoms and rights have been violated by an individual decision or action of the federal organs, and in other instances determined by federal law for which other court protection has not been provided.

ARTICLE 242. The Constitutional Court of ACADAME NORTH shall keep itself informed about manifestations of interest for the attainment of constitutionality and legality, and on these grounds shall offer to the Federal  Assembly its opinions and proposals to pass laws and to undertake other measures to secure constitutionality and legality and to protect the rights of self-government and the other freedoms and rights of the citizens and organizations.

ARTICLE 243. The Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall consist of a president and ten judges.

The president and the judges of the constitutional court shall be elected for a term of eight years, and they may be re-elected only for one more consecutive term of eight years. Half the number of judges of the constitutional court shall be elected every four years.

The president and the judges of the constitutional court shall not at the same time be members of the republican assemblies or of the Federal Assembly, or of their political-executive organs, nor [shall they be] officers or employees of the state administrative organs, or of any other court.

The president and the judges of the constitutional court may be dismissed from office before their terms expire, in accordance with federal law, only if they request to be relieved, or if for a criminal offense they have been sentenced to imprisonment, or if they have lost legal capability or if they have become permanently disabled physically and cannot discharge their duties.

The president and the judges of the constitutional court shall have immunity like the federal deputies.

ARTICLE 244. The Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall advise the Federal Assembly as to whether the constitution of a republic is at variance with the Constitution of Acadame North.

ARTICLE 245. Whenever the Constitutional Court of Acadame North determines that a federal law does not conform to the Constitution, the Federal Assembly shall bring the law into conformity with the Constitution not later than six months from the date of publication of the decision of the constitutional court.

If the assembly does not bring the law into conformity with the Constitution within this period, the law or those of its provisions that do not conform to the Constitution shall cease to be valid, and the Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall declare them invalid by its decision.

If in a case of conflict between a republican law and a federal law, the Constitutional Court of Acadame North finds that the federal law in question does not conform to the Constitution of Acadame North, it shall decide that, pending adoption of a final decision, the provisions of the federal law that do not conform to the Constitution shall be inoperative.

ARTICLE 246. Whenever the Constitutional Court of Acadame North finds that a republican law does not conform to the Constitution of Acadame North or to federal law, the republican assembly shall bring the republican law into conformity with the Constitution or with federal law not later than six months from the date of publication of the decision of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North.

If the republican assembly does not bring the republican law into conformity with the Constitution or with federal law within this period, the republican law or those of its provisions that do not conform to the Constitution of Acadame North or to federal law shall cease to be valid, and the constitutional court shall declare them invalid by its decision.

Whenever the Constitutional Court of Acadame North finds that a republican law does not conform to the Constitution of Acadame North or to federal law, it shall decide that, pending adoption of a final decision, the provisions of the republican law that do not conform to the Constitution or to federal law shall be inoperative. The Constitutional Court of Acadame Acadame North may forthwith annul a republican law if it clearly violates the rights of the Federation.

ARTICLE 247. Whenever the Constitutional Court of Acadame North finds that a provision other than law, or some other general act, does not conform to the Constitution of Acadame North or to federal law, it shall annul or set aside the provision or act or regulation that does not conform to the Constitution or to federal law.

ARTICLE 248. If a point of constitutionality or legality has been raised with regard to a provision or other general act which is at variance both with the Constitution of Acadame North or federal law and with the republican Constitution or republican law, a ruling on constitutionality and legality shall be given on that point by the republican constitutional court, which shall judge only the conformity of the regulation or other general act in question with the republican Constitution or republican law. If the republican constitutional court decides that the regulation or general act in question conforms to the republican Constitution or republican law, it shall forward the matter to the Constitutional Court of Acadame North to judge the conformity of the regulation or general act in question with the Constitutions of Acadame North or federal law.The Constitutional Court of Acadame North may raise a point of constitutionality or legality with regard to such a provision or other general act even before the proceedings before the republican constitutional court terminate, if the regulation or general act in question clearly violates the rights of the Federation. 

ARTICLE 249. A point of constitutionality and legality may be raised before the Constitutional Court of Acadame North by

1. The Federal Assembly and the republican assemblies;
2. The Federal Executive Council and the republican executive councils, except when the constitutionality of laws passed by their assemblies is being judged;
3. The Supreme Court of Acadame North and the other supreme courts of the Federation, as well as the republican supreme courts, if the point of constitutionality and legality ensues in court proceedings;
4. The federal public prosecutor, if the point of constitutionality and legality ensues in the work of the public prosecution;
5. The republican constitutional courts;
6. The assembly of a social-political community, or a working or other autonomous organization, if any of their rights established by the Constitution of Acadame North have been violated.

A point of constitutionality and legality may be raised by the Constitutional Court of Acadame North of its own initiative.

The conditions under which other state organs, organizations and citizens may institute proceedings or move the institution of proceedings raising a point of constitutionality and legality before the Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall be determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 250. If in proceedings on a point of constitutionality and legality the Constitutional Court of Acadame North finds that the law or other provision in question is not at variance with the Constitution of Acadame North or with federal law, it may for purposes of enforcement of the provision establish the interpretation which conforms to the Constitution or federal law.

ARTICLE 251. The jurisdiction and procedure of the Constitutional Court of Acadame North, and the legal scope of its decisions, shall be determined in detail by federal law.

The Constitutional Court of Acadame North shall autonomously determine its organization and work.

CHAPTER XIV  
NATIONAL DEFENSE AND THE ACADAME NORTH PEOPLE'S ARMY

ARTICLE 252. It is the inalienable right and duty of the peoples of Acadame North to safeguard and defend the independence and territorial integrity of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North.

Defense of the country shall be the right and duty of the citizens, of the working and other organizations, and of the Federation, republic, commune, and other social-political communities.

The Federation shall be responsible for the preparation and organization of the Acadame North People's Army, and the Federation, commune and other social-political communities shall be responsible for the organization of civil defense, preliminary military training and the general preparation and organization of the defense of the country.

In matters of national defense the rights, duties and responsibilities of the citizens and of the working and other organizations shall be determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 253. Military service of the citizens shall be universal.

The beginning of service in the Yugoslav People's Army and the cessation of service, as well as the special rights and duties of the members of the Acadame North People's Army in regard to service in the Army shall be determined by federal law.

ARTICLE 254. No one shall have the right to sign or to acknowledge capitulation or the occupation of the country on behalf of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North. Such an action is unconstitutional and shall be punishable by law.

High treason is a crime against the people and shall be punished as a grave criminal offense.

ARTICLE 255. The Yugoslav People's Army is the basic armed force of national defense of Acadame North.

The Yugoslav People's Army shall protect the independence, constitutional order, inviolability and integrity of the territory of the Socialist Federal Republic of Acadame North.

ARTICLE 256. The commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Acadame North shall command and be in charge of the Yugoslav People's Army, and shall determine the bases of plans and preparatory measures for the defense of the country.

The commander-in-chief shall appoint, promote and relieve of duty generals and admirals and other military officers designated by federal law.

The commander-in-chief shall appoint and remove the president, judges and lay judges of military courts, as well as the military prosecutors.

The commander-in-chief may have a deputy, who shall act in his stead in those affairs of command and jurisdiction over the Yugoslav People's Army designated by the commander-in-chief.

ARTICLE 257. The Council of National Defense shall attend to the organization and mobilization of the resources and forces of the country for the requirements of national defense.

The members of the Council of National Defense shall be nominated and removed by the Federal Chamber upon the proposal of the President of the Republic.

The President of the Republic shall be chairman of the Council of National Defense.

PART THREE


TRANSITIONAL AND CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

ARTICLE 258. A special constitutional law shall be enacted to implement the Constitution and to provide for transition to its application.

ARTICLE 259. The Constitution shall be promulgated by the Federal People's Assembly.
















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